SPORTİF ORTAM STRES ÖLÇEĞİ: MADDE SEÇİMİ, GEÇERLİK VE GÜVENİRLİK ÇALIŞMASI

Stresin olgu olarak sportif ortamdaki önemine karşın konuyla ilgili az sayıda ölçme aracı ve çalışma olduğu gözlenmektedir. Bu nedenle bu çalışmada sportif ortamda stresin düzeyinin değerlendirilmesine yönelik bir ölçme aracının geliştirilmesi ve psikometrik özelliklerinin incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu araştırma, madde seçme ve seçilen maddelerin incelenmesi olarak iki ayrı işlem ve üç ayrı çalışmadan oluşmuştur. İlgili konu doğrultusunda araştırmacılar tarafından 135 madde yazılarak madde havuzu oluşturulmuştur. Daha sonra 1. çalışmada 17 ile 40 yaşları arasında 282 kişi bu maddeleri cevaplamıştır. Bu çalışmada Madde Yanıt Kuramı, güvenirlik-madde analizi ve açıklayıcı faktör analizi tekrarlayan şekilde kullanılarak 65 madde seçilmiştir. 2. çalışmada 15 ile 57 yaşları arasında 479 kişi 65 maddeyi cevaplamışlardır. Aynı analizler tekrarlanarak yürütülen işlemde madde sayısı 22'ye indirilmiştir. Açıklayıcı faktör analizi sonucuna göre, “A Sportif Ortam Stres Ölçeği” adı verilen seçilmiş maddelerin tek faktörde toplandığı görülmüştür. Seçilen maddeler 0,95 iç tutarlılık katsayısı göstermiştir. Son olarak 3. çalışmaya son formu cevaplayan 18 ile 33 yaşları arasında 111 kişi katılmıştır. A Sportif Ortam Stres Ölçeği, 0,94 olarak yüksek iç tutarlılık göstermiştir. Bu çalışmada beş farklı ölçek ve sekiz farklı alt boyut toplam puanı, A Sportif Ortam Stres Ölçeği ile kriter bağıntılı geçerlik için kullanılmıştır. Sonuçlar 0,42 ile 0,58 arasında değişen bağıntılar ortaya koymuştur. Test-tekrar bağıntı katsayısı 0,57 elde edilmiştir. Geliştirilen ölçeğin temel test psikometrik özelliklerini büyük oranda karşıladığı görülmüştür.

A STRESS SCALE FOR SPORTS: ITEM SELECTION, VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY STUDY

Despite the vital importance of stress in sports, only limited amount of device exists to measure the concept. For this reason, it was the aim of the present study to develop a measurement device to assess the stress levels in sports and examine its psychometric properties. Current study consisted of two processes (item selection and examination of psychometric properties of the selected items) and three studies. First, based on relevant literature, authors generated an item pool consisting of 135 statements. Then, 282 individuals ranging in age from 17 to 40 responded to these 135 items (first study). In accordance with Item Response Theory, item reliability and explanatory factor analyses were conducted in a repeated fashion and number of items was reduced to 65 based on the results obtained from the analyses. In the second study 479 individuals aged between 15 and 57 responded 65 items. Same analyses were conducted in a repeated fashion and number of items was reduced to 22. Results of the explanatory factor analyses indicated that selected items represent single factor structure which was named as “A Stress Scale for Sports”. Internal consistency coefficient of the selected items was 0.95. Lastly, in the third study 111 individuals aged between 18 and 33 responded last form. A Stress Scale for Sports results indicated higher internal consistency coefficient (Alpha 0.94). Total scores of the five different scale and eight different subscales were used for criterion related reliability of the Stress Scale for Sport in this study. Results indicated that correlation coefficients ranged from 0.42 to 0.58. Test-retest correlation coefficient of the scale was 0.57. It was concluded that A Stress Scale for Sports has acceptable psychometric properties.

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