Elit ve Elit Altı Cirit Atıcılarının Atış Tekniklerinin 3 Boyutlu Doğrusal Kinematik Analizi

Araştırmamızın amacı; elit ve elit altı (elit olmaya aday) düzeydeki cirit atıcılarının atış tekniklerinin, üç boyutlu doğrusal parametrelerinin tespit edilmesidir. 3 boyutlu videografi yönteminin kullanıldığı araştırmamızda 5 elit, 5 elit altı toplam 10 cirit sporcusu alınmıştır. Sporcuların teknikleri 100 hz’lik üç adet kamerayla kaydedilmiş, omuz, dirsek, bilek ve ciritin x, y, z eksenleri üzerindeki doğrusal kinematik analizleri, Simi Motion 6.2 Hareket Analiz programı kullanılarak yapılmıştır. Gruplar arasındaki fark, SPSS 11.5 programında, Mann Whitney U testiyle tespit edilmiştir. Elit ve elit altı atıcıların taşıma evresinde; omuzun x, dirseğin x, y ve z, bileğin x ve y, ciritin de y ekseninde, kuvvet uygulama evresinde; omuz ve dirseğin y, bileğin y ve z, ciritin z ekseninde, atış evresinde ise; omuzun y, dirseğin y ve z, bileğin x, y ve z, ciritin de x ve z eksenindeki doğrusal hızları açısından istatistiksel olarak anlamlı farklılıklar bulunmuştur (p

Elite and Under Elite Javelin Throwers'3 Dimensional Linear Kinematic Analysis of Their Throwing Techniques

The aim of this study is to find the elite and under elite (candidate to be elite) javelin throwers&#8217; throwing techniques&#8217; 3 dimensional linear parameters. In our study, 5 elite and 5 sub-elite javelin throwers were used as a athlete with the help of 3dimensional videography method. The techniques of the athletes&#8217; were recorded with 3 cameras with 100hz speed. The linear kinematic analysis on the shoulder, elbow, wrist and the javelin&#8217;s x, y, z, axis were made by using Simi Motion 6.2 programme. The differences between groups were fond with Mann Whitney U test on the SPSS 11,5 programme. Significant differences were found statistically among the linear velocity on the delivery phase of the elite and sub-elite throwers; on the shoulder&#8217;s x, elbow&#8217;s x, y and z, wrist&#8217;s x and y, javelin&#8217;s y axis; on the accelaration phase; shoulder and elbow&#8217;s y, wrist&#8217;s y and z, javelin&#8217;s z axis; on the throwing phase; shoulder&#8217;s y, elbow&#8217;s y and z, wrist&#8217;s x, y and z, javelin&#8217;s x and z axis (p<0,05). Elite athletes have no difficulty on carrying their speed well to the accelaration and throwing speed from the run-up phase, but under elite athletes push their elbows to the inner side and move their body to the back on the accelaration phase; by pulling their elbow to the front exactly and falling their elbows and because of it, falling the javelin from the hand on the throwing phase and they couldn&#8217;t divert their speed which was achieved on the run-up phase, so they couldn&#8217;t catch the optimal throwing distance because of the making technique mistake.

Kaynakça

1.Knudson, D., Fundamentals of Biomechanics, Kluwer Academic/ Plenum Publishers, New York, pp.5, 2003.

2.Viitasalo, J., Mononen, H., Norvapalo, K., “Release parameters at the foul line and the official result in javelin throwing”, Sports Biomechanics, 2, pp.15-34, 2003.

3.Morriss, C., Bartlett, R.M., “Biomechanical factors critical for performance in the men’s javelin throw”, Sports Medicine, 6, pp. 438-446, 1996.

4.Bartlett, R.M., Müller, E., Lindinger, S.,Brunner, F., Morriss, C., Three- Dimensional evaluation of the kinematic release parameters for javelin throws of different skill levels, Human Kinetics Publishers, USA, pp. 59-70,1996.

5.Poucelot, P., Audigie, F., Degueurce, C., Geiger, D., Denoix, J.M., “A method to syncronise cameras using the direct linear transformation technique”, Journal of Biomechanics,33, pp.1751-1754, 2000.

6.Abdel Aziz, Y. I., Karara, H. M., “Direct Linear Transformation from Comparator Coordinates into Object Space Coordinates in Close Range Photogrammetry”. Presented At The ASP/VI Symposium on Close-Range Photogrammetry. American Society of Photogrammetry, Falls Chearch, VA. Urbana, 12, pp.1-18, 1971.

7.Shapiro, R., “Direct Linear Transformation method for three-dimensional cinematography”, The research quarterly, 49 (2), pp.197- 205, 1978.

8.Best, R.J., Bartlett, R.M., Morriss, C.J., “A three- dimensional analysis of javelin throwing technique” Journal of Sports Sciences, 11, pp. 315-328, 1993.

9.Bartlett, R.M., Müller, E., Raschner, C., Lindinger, S., Jordan, C., “Pressure distributions on the plantar surface of the foot during the javelin throw”, Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 11, pp. 163-176, 1995.

10.Chow, J.W., Kuenster, A.F., Lim, Y., “Kinematic analysis of javelin throw performed by wheelchair athletes of different functional classes”, Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 2, pp. 36-46, 2003.

11.LeBlanc, M.K., Dapena, J., “Generation and transfer of angular momentum in the javelin throw”, American Society of Biomechanics. 20th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Atlanta, Georgia, 1996.

12.Kunz, H., Kaufmann, D.A., “Cinematographical analysis of javelin throwing techniques of decathletes”, British Journal of Sports Medicine, 17, pp. 200-204, 1983.

13.Campos, J., Brizuela, G., Ramon, V., Gamez, J.,”Analysis of kinematic parameters between spanish and world class javelin throwers”, XX. ISBS Congress, July, pp.1-5, Spain, 2002.

14.Meriç, B., Aydin, M., Çolak, T., Özbek, A., “Biomechanical Analysis of the Overarm Throw Technics in Different Branches”, The TSSA 8th International Sports Science Congress, November, Antalya, Abstract Book,138 pp. 17-20, 2004.

15.İnal, H.S. Spor Biyomekaniği Temel Prensipler, 1. Basım, Nobel Yayım Dağıtım, İstanbul, 2004.

16.Whiting, W.C., Gregor, R.J., Halushka, M.,”Body segment and release parameter contributions to new- rules javelin throwing”, International Journal of Biomechanics. 7: 111-24, 1991.

17.Mero, A., Komi, P.V., Kotjus, T., et al. “Body sgment contributions in javelin throwing during final thrust phases”, Journal of Applied Biomechanics. 10: 166-77, 1994.

18. Gonzalez, D., Dietrich, G. “Three dimensional kinematics analysis of javelin throw: from Real Situation to Biomechanical model”, Science and Sports vol.18: 216, 2003.

Kaynak Göster