Spor Biyomekaniğinde ve Üç Boyutlu Hareket Analizinde Sayısal Fotogrametrinin Kullanılması

Hareketin!bilimsel!olarak!kaydedilmesi!ve!değerlendirilerek!geri!dönüş!verilmesi!sporun!ve! spor!eğitiminin!vazgeçilmez!unsurudur.!Sporda!hareket!analizinin!laboratuvar!ortamı!dışında! gerçekleştirilmesi,!sporun!doğası!gereği!olan!hareketlerin!kısıtlanması!ve!gözlenememesi!gibi! olumsuz!etkileri!en!aza!indirgememizi!sağlayacaktır.!Sporcu!hareketlerinin!video!kaydedici! sistemlerle!izlenmesi!ve!fotogrametrik!yöntemlerle!analiz!edilmesi!günümüzde!farklı! disiplinlerin!araştırma!alanlarıyla!çakışmakta!ve!birçok!uygulamada!başarılı!sonuçlar! vermektedir.!Fotogrametrik!teknikler!görüntülerden!objelerin!ölçülmesi!ve!yorumlanması! esasına!dayanır.!Kamera!kalibrasyonuyla!veya!kamera!üreticisi!firmaların!belirlediği!değerler! ile!kamera!parametreleri!matematiksel!olarak!belirlenmektedir.!Sonrasında!ise!görüntü! koordinatları!ve!üç!boyutlu!uzay!koordinatları!arasındaki!analitik!ilişki!modellenerek! dönüşüm!yapılır.!Böylelikle!fiziksel!temas!kurmadan!cisimler!modellenebilmekte!ve!onlara!ait! metrik!bilgiler!elde!edilebilmektedir. Sporcunun!hareketini!tamamlamasının!ardından!hareketin!üç!boyutlu!ve!gerçek!zamanlı! olarak!gösterilebilmesi!konusu!günümüzde!gittikçe!önem!kazanmaktadır.!Bu!derlemede! sporcu!hareketlerinin!fotogrametrik!yöntemlerle!belirlenmesi!daha!önce!gerçekleştirilmiş! araştırmalar!ışığında!incelenmiştir.!Bu!incelemelerin!sonucunda!sporcu!hareketlerini!gerçek! zamanlı!analiz!edebilecek!bir!sistemin!tasarımı!yapılmıştır.!

Use of Digital Photogrammetry in 3D Motion Analysis and Biomechanics of Sports

Scientifically!recording!a!movement!and!giving!feedback!by!evaluating!it!is!an!indispensable! element!of!the!sports!and!sports!education.!In!sports,!making!the!movement!analysis! outside!the!laboratory!environment!would!allow!us!to!minimize!the!adverse!effects, such!as! restrictions!and!unobservability!of!the!movements!due!to!nature!of!the!sports.!Today,! monitoring!of!athletes'!movements!using!video!recorder!systems!and!analyzing!them!by! photogrammetric!methods!overlap!different!disciplines!in!terms!of!study!area and!reveal! quite!successful!results!in!many!applications.!The!photogrammetric!techniques!are!based!on! the!measurement!and!interpretation!of!the!objects!from!images.!The!camera!parameters! are!mathematically!determined!using!the!camera!calibration!or!the!values!specified!by!the! cameraJmanufacturing!companies.!Then!the!analytical!relationship!between!the!image! coordinates!and!the!threeJdimensional!space!coordinates!is!modelled!and!the!conversion! process!is!performed.!This!allows!to!model!objects!without!making!physical!contact!and,! thus,!to!obtain!their!metric!information. Nowadays,!the!threeJdimensional!and!realJtime!display!of!a!movement!of!the!athletes!is! getting!more!important.!This!review!aims!to!examine!identification!of!athlete!movements! through!photogrammetric!methods!in!the!light!of!previously!conducted!researches.! Depending!on!the!information!obtained!from!these!studies,!a!system!that!allows!for!a!realJ time!analysis!of!the!athletes'!movements!is!designed.

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Kaynak Göster