Factors Associated with Eating Disorders in Male Athletes

Objectives: Pertaining literature is inconclusive and fails to explain sport-related factors for disordered eating in male athletes. The aim of this sudy was to identify some risk factors that may contribute to disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in male athletes according to type and level of participation to sports activity. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of disordered eating among male athletes and non-athletes. The total sample of participants consisted of 186 males, 18-26 years old. The male athletes were divided into groups according to sport type (“lean” sports and “non-lean” sports) and athletic participation (recreational athletes, low- and high-competitive level). Results: The mean values of all subscales of EDE-Q revealed no significant difference for non-athletes and athletes, as well as between the groups according to sports type and competitive level. About 50% of the non-athletes reported binge eating episodes, etc., vs. 42.0% of athletes differences being insignificant. The percentages of excessive exercising for the same groups were 12.5% and 23.1%, respectively. The prevalence of excessive exercising in “lean” sport athletes (38.2%) was significantly higher than in “non-lean” athletes (13.8%). Self-induced vomiting and use of laxatives were with low prevalence in all surveyed groups. We did not identify any differences between groups according to level of athletic participation, with the exception of a higher percentage in male athletes with high competitive level with scores ≥4 for the dietary restraint subscale. Conclusion: This study identified the presence of disordered eating patterns and pathogenic weight control behaviors in both male athletes and non-athletes, the difference between them was statistically insignificant. Among the pathological weightcontrolling behaviors, only the compulsive exercising was with higher incidence rate in athletes of “lean” sports when compared with “non-lean” sports. There were significant differences in prevelance of dietary restraints in highly competitive athletes in terms of level of athletic participation. Considering the levels of participation, only those who were at a higher competitive level have performed more dietary restrictions. It is not possible to say that type of sport and level of participation pose a greater risk for eating disorders in male athletes. There is need for further research examining other factors that may relate to eating disorder attitudes and behaviors in male athletes.

Erkek Sporcularda Beslenme Bozukluğu ile İlişkili Faktörler

Amaç: Erkek sporcularda görülen beslenme bozuklukları için literatür bilgisi yetersizdir ve sporla ilgili faktörleri açıklayamamaktadır. Bu çalışmanın amacı erkeklerde spor aktivitesine, türüne ve katılım düzeyine göre düzensiz yeme tutum ve davranışlarını etkileyebilecek bazı risk faktörlerini belirlemektir. Gereç ve Yöntemler: Erkek sporcular ve sporcu olmayanlar arasında düzensiz yeme sıklığını belirlemek için kesitsel bir Yeme Bozukluğu Belirleme (EDE-Q) anketi uygulandı. Tüm grup 18-26 yaşları arasındaki 186 erkekten oluşuyordu. Erkek sporcular, spor türüne (kas geliştirme etkisi az ve çok olan) ve spora katılıma (eğlence amaçlı spor, düşük ve yüksek yarışma düzeyi) göre gruplara ayrıldı. Bulgular: EDE-Q alt ölçeklerinin ortalama değerleri, sporcu olmayanlar ve sporcular için olduğu kadar, spor türü ve yarışma düzeyine göre karşılaştırıldığında anlamlı bir farklılık ortaya koymadı. Sporcu olmayanların %50'si, sporcuların ise %42.0'si tıkanırcasına yeme atağı vb. Bildirdi, ancak aralarındaki fark istatistiksel olarak anlamlı değildi. Aynı gruplar için aşırı egzersiz oranları sırasıyla %12.5 ve %23.1 idi. Kas gelişimi ağırlıklı sporcularda aşırı egzersiz sıklığı (%38.2) daha az kas geliştiren spor türlerine göre (%13.8) anlamlı derecede yüksekti. Kusmayı uyarma ve laksatiflerin kullanımı prevalansı tüm anket gruplarında düşüktü. Diyet kısıtlaması alt ölçeği için ≥4 puan alan yüksek yarışma düzeyine sahip erkek sporculardaki yüksek oranlar hariç, grupların spora katılım düzeyine göre herhangi bir anlamlı farklılık bulunmadı. Sonuç: Bu çalışma, hem erkek sporcularda, hem de sporcu olmayanlarda yeme bozukluğu ve patojenik kilo kontrolü davranışlarının varlığını tanımladı, ancak aralarındaki farkı istatistiksel olarak anlamlı olmadı. Patolojik kilo kontrol edici davranışlar göz önüne alındığında, kas geliştirici spor yapanların diğerlerine göre daha fazla zorlayıcı egzersiz yaptıkları gözlendi. Spora katılım düzeyleri göz önüne alındığında, yalnızca yüksek yarışmacı düzeyde spor yapanların daha fazla diyet kısıtlaması yaptıkları belirlendi. Spor türü ve katılım düzeyinin erkek sporcularda yeme bozuklukları için daha büyük bir risk oluşturduğunu söylemek mümkün değildir. Erkek sporcularda yeme bozukluğu ve davranışları ile ilgili olabilecek diğer faktörleri inceleyen daha fazla araştırmaya ihtiyaç vardır.

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