Sporcularda Optimal Performans Duygu Durumu: Ruminatif Düşünce ve Akıldışı İnançların Rolü Üzerine Bir Çalışma

Bu çalışmanın amacı sporcularda ruminatif düşünce ve akıldışı inançların optimal performans duygu durumunu belirlemedeki rolünü araştırmaktır. Çalışmaya İstanbul ilinde bireysel spor ve takım sporu yapan 133 kadın (Xyaş: 21.41; SS = 4.33) ve 261 erkek (Xyaş: 21.92; SS = 3.94) olmak üzere toplam 394 sporcu (Xyaş: 21.75; SS = 4.07) katılmıştır. Sporculara “Kişisel Bilgi Formu”, “Ruminatif Düşünce Biçimi Ölçeği”, “Akıldışı Performans İnançları Envanteri-2” ve “Sürekli Etkinlik Tecrübe Ölçeği Kısa Formu (SDFS-2)” uygulanmıştır. Yapılan hiyerarşik regresyon analizi sonuçlarına göre, ruminatif düşünce optimal performans duygu durumunun anlamlı belirleyicisi değildir (p>0.05). Elde edilen bulgular, sporcuların akıldışı inanç düzeylerinin optimal performans duygu durumunu anlamlı olarak yordadığını göstermektedir (p<0.05). Akıldışı inanç alt boyutlarından düşük tolerans ile optimal performans duygu durumu arasında anlamlı pozitif ilişki bulunmuştur (β=0.22; p<0.05). Sonuç olarak; sporcuların zihnini meşgul eden tekrarlayıcı içsel düşünceler, sporcuların yaptığı aktivite ile özdeşleşip göreve odaklanmaları ile ilişkili değilken; sporcularda başarısızlığa ve belirlenen hedeflere ulaşamamaya karşı tahammülsüzlüğü ifade eden akıldışı inanç alt boyutlarından düşük toleransın, sporcuların optimal performans duygu durumunu belirlemede rol oynadığı görülmektedir.

Flow in Athletes: A Study on the Role of Ruminative Thought and Irrational Beliefs

The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ruminative thoughts and irrational beliefs in determining flow in athletes. One hundred thirty three female (M=21.41; SD=4.33 age) and 261 male (M=21.92; SD=3.94 age), in total 394 (M=21.75; SD=4.07 age) athletes participated in this study. “Demographic Information form”, “Ruminative Thought Style Questionnaire”, “Irrational Performance Beliefs Inventory-2”, and “Short Dispositional Flow Scale-2” were administered to participants. The results of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that ruminative thought was not a significant determinant of flow experiences (p>0.05). On the other hand, the irrational belief of the athletes significantly predicted the flow experiences (p<0.05). A significant positive correlation was found between low frustration tolerance sub-scales of irrational belief and flow experiences (β=0.22; p<0.05). In conclusion, the ruminative thoughts that occupy the minds of the athletes are not related to the athletes' identification with their activity and focusing on the task; it is seen that low tolerance, one of the sub-scales of irrational belief, which expresses intolerance to failure and inability to reach the determined goals in athletes, play a significant role in determining flow experiences of athletes.

Kaynakça

1. Ada, E.N., Çetinkalp, Z.K., Altıparmak, M.E., ve Aşçı, F.H. (2018). Flow experiences in physical education classes: The role of perceived motivational climate and situational motivation. Asian Journal of Education and Training, 4(2), 114-120.

2. Altıntaş, A., Kelecek, S., ve Aşçı, F.H. (2013). Elit sporcularda durumsal güdülenme ve optimal performans duygu durumu arasındaki ilişki. Pamukkale Journal of Sport Sciences, 4(4), 14-21.

3. Aras, D., Yiğit, S., Kayam, S., Arslan, E., ve Akça, F. (2020). Bilişsel yorgunluğun egzersiz ve spor performansına etkileri. Spormetre Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 18(1), 1-32.

4. Asakawa, K. (2004). Flow experience and autotelic personality in Japanese college students: How do they experience challenges in daily life? Journal of Happiness Studies, 5(2), 123-154.

5. Birrer, D., Röthlin, P., ve Morgan, G. (2012). Mindfulness to enhance athletic performance: Theoretical considerations and possible impact mechanisms. Mindfulness, 3(3), 235-246.

6. Borders, A., Earleywine, M., ve Jajodia, A. (2010). Could mindfulness decrease anger, hostility, and aggression by decreasing rumination? Aggressive Behavior, 36(1), 28-44.

7. Brinker, J.K., ve Dozois, J.A. (2009). Ruminative thought style and depressed mood. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65(1), 1-19.

8. Burnette, J.L., Davis, D.E., Green, J.D., Worthington, E.L., ve Bradfield, E. (2009). Insecure attachment and depressive symptoms: The mediating role of rumination, empathy, and forgiveness. Personality and Individual Differences, 46(3), 276-280.

9. Carver, C.S., ve Scheier, M.F. (1990). Origins and functions of positive and negative affect: A control-process view. Psychological Review, 97(1), 19-35.

10. Cervello, E., Moreno, J.A., Villodre, N.A., ve Iglesias, D. (2006). Goal orientation, motivational climate, and dispositional flow of high school students engaged in extracurricular physical activity. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 102(1), 87-92.

11. Chang, E.C., ve D’Zurilla, T.J. (1996). Irrational beliefs as predictors of anxiety and depression in a college population. Personality and Individual Differences, 20(2), 215-219.

12. Crust, L., ve Swann, C. (2011). Comparing two measures of mental toughness. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(2), 217-221

13. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975). Beyond boredom and anxiety. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

14. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper & Row.

15. Çağlar, E., Sarı, İ., Aşçı, F.H., Eklund, R.C., ve Jackson, S.A. (2020). Short versions of turkish flow scales: Reliability and validity study. Studia Psychologica, 62(3), 179-197.

16. DiGiuseppe, R.A., ve David, O.A. (2015). Rational emotive behavior therapy. In: HT Prout, AL Fedewa (Ed), Counseling and Psychotherapy with Children and Adolescents: Theory and Practice for School and Clinical Settings, (pp 155-216). John Wiley and Sons.

17. Dormann, C.F., Elith, J., Bacher, S., Buchmann, C., Carl, G., Carré, G., Marquez, J.R.G., Gruber, B., Lafourcade, B., Leitao, P.J., Münkemüller, T., McClean, C., Osborne, P.T., Reineking, B., Schröder, B., Skidmore, A.K., Zurell, D., ve Lautenbach, S. (2013). Collinearity: A review of methods to deal with it and a simulation study evaluating their performance. Ecography, 36(1), 27-46.

18. Dryden, W., ve Branch, R. (2008). Fundamentals of rational emotive behaviour therapy: A training handbook. John Wiley & Sons.

19. Ellis A. (1996). Responses to criticisms of rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT). Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 14, 97-121

20. Ellis, A., David, D., ve Lynn, S.J. (2009). Rational and ırrational beliefs: A historical and conceptual perspective. In: D David, SJ Lynn, A Ellis, eds. Rational and Irrational Beliefs: Research, Theory, and Clinical Practice, (pp 3-22). Oxford University Press.

21. Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS (3rd Eds). London: Sage Publications Ltd.

22. Flett, A.L., Haghbin, M., Pychyl, T.A. (2016). Procrastination and depression from a cognitive perspective: An exploration of the associations among procrastinatory automatic thoughts, rumination, and mindfulness. Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 34(3), 169-186.

23. Gladwell, M. (2008). The 10 000 hour-rule. In: Outliers, (35-68). New York: Little, Bown and Co.

24. González-Cutre, D., Sicilia, A., Moreno, J.A., ve Fernández-Balboa, J.M. (2009). Dispositional flow in physical education: Relationships with motivational climate, social goals, and perceived competence. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 28, 422-440.

25. Gözmen, A., ve Aşçı, F.H. (2016). Sporcularda optimal performans duygu durumunun yordanmasında beş faktörlü kişilik özelliklerinin ve mükemmeliyetçiliğin rolü. Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 27(1), 40-48.

26. Hamilton, J.S., ve Schutte, N.S. (2016). The role of adherence in the effects of a mindfulness ıntervention for competitive athletes: Changes in mindfulness, flow, pessimism, and anxiety. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 10, 99-117.

27. Harrington, N. (2005). It's too difficult! Frustration intolerance beliefs and procrastination. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 873-883.

28. Jackman, P.C., Hawkins, R.M., Crust, L., ve Swann, C. (2019). Flow states in exercise: A systematic review. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 45, 1-16.

29. Jackman, P.C., Van Hout, M.C., Lane, A., ve Fitzpatrick, G. (2014). Experiences of flow in jockeys during flat-race conditions. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 13(3), 205-223.

30. Jackson, S.A., ve Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1999). Flow in sports. Champaign: Human Kinetics.

31. Jackson, S.A., ve Eklund, R.C. (2004). The flow scales manual. Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology.

32. Jackson, S.A, Martin, A.J., ve Eklund, R.C. (2008). Long and short measures of flow: Examining construct validity of the FSS-2, DFS-2, and new brief counterparts. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 30, 561-587.

33. Jackson, S.A., ve Roberts, G.C. (1992). Positive performance states of athletes: Toward a conceptual understanding of peak performance. The Sport Psychologist, 6(2), 156-171.

34. Josefsson, T., Ivarsson, A., Lindwall, M., Gustafsson, H., Stenling, A., Böröy, J., Mattsson, E., Carnebratt, J., Sevholt, S., ve Falkevik, E. (2017). Mindfulness mechanisms in sports: Mediating effects of rumination and emotion regulation on sport-specific coping. Mindfulness, 5(1), 18-35.

35. Karatepe, H.T., Yavuz, F., ve Türkcan, A. (2013). Ruminatif düşünme biçimi ölçeği’nin türkçe geçerlilik ve güvenilirliği. Klinik Psikofarmakoloji Bülteni, 23(3), 231-41.

36. Kaufman, K.A., Glass, C.R., ve Arnkoff, D.B. (2009). Evaluation of mindful sport performance enhancement (MSPE): A new approach to promote flow in athletes. Journal of Clinical Sports Psychology, 4, 334-356.

37. Martin, L.L., ve Tesser, A. (1996). Some ruminative thoughts. In: Wyer RS, eds. Advances in Social Cognition (pp 1-47). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

38. Moneta, G.B. (2004). The flow experience across cultures. Journal of Happiness Studies, 5(2), 115–121

39. Murcia, J.A.M., Gimeno, E.C., ve Coll, D.G. (2008). Relationships among goal orientations, motivational climate and flow in adolescent athletes: Differences by gender. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 11(1), 181-191.

40. Raes, F., ve Williams, J.M.G. (2010). The relationship between mindfulness and uncontrollability of ruminative thinking. Mindfulness, 1, 199-203.

41. Reid, D. (2011). Mindfulness and flow in occupational engagement: Presence in doing. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 78, 50-56.

42. Roberts, H., Moberly, N.J., Cull, T., Gow, H., Honeysett, M., ve Dunn, BD. (2020). Short-term affective consequences of specificity of rumination about unresolved personal goals. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 66, 101519.

43. Rogatko, T.P. (2009). The influence of flow on positive affect in college students. Journal of Happiness Studies, 10(2), 133-148.

44. Ryan, R.M., ve Brown, K.W. (2003). Why we don't need self-esteem: On fundamental needs, contingent love, and mindfulness. Psychological Inquiry, 14(1), 71-76.

45. Stavrou, N.A., Jackson, S.A., Zervas, Y., ve Karteroliotis, K. (2007). Flow experience and athletes’ performance with reference to the orthogonal model of flow. The Sport Psychologist, 21, 438-457.

46. Swann, C., Keegan, R.J., Piggott, D., ve Crust, L. (2012). A systematic review of the experience, occurrence, and controllability of flow states in elite sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13(6), 807-819.

47. Swann, C., Piggott, D., Crust, L., Keegan, R.J., ve Hemmings, B. (2014). Exploring the interactions underlying flow states: A connecting analysis of flow occurrence in European Tour golfers. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 16, 60-69.

48. Tabachnick, B.G., ve Fidell, L.S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

49. Turner, M.J., ve Allen, M.S. (2018). Confirmatory factor analysis of the irrational performance beliefs ınventory (iPBI) in a sample of amateur and semi-professional athletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 35, 126-130.

50. Turner, M.J., Allen, M.S., Slater, M.J., Barker, J.B., Woodcock, C., Harwood, C.G., ve McFayden, K. (2016). The development and initial validation of the irrational performance beliefs inventory (iPBI). European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 32, 1-7.

51. Ullén, F., Manzano, Ö., Almeida, R., Magnusson, K.E., Pedersen, N.L., Nakamura, J., Csíkszentmihályi, M., ve Madison, G. (2012). Proneness for psychological flow in everyday life: Associations with personality and intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 52, 167-172.

52. Urfa, O., Aşçı, F.H. (2018). Akıldışı performans inançları envanteri–2’nin psikometrik özelliklerinin sınanması. Psikoloji Çalışmaları, 38(2), 219-236.

53. Watkins, R. (2008). Constructive and unconstructive repetitive thought. Psychological Bulletin, 134(2), 163-206.

54. Wiggins, M., ve Freeman, P. (2000). Anxiety and flow: an examination of anxiety direction and the flow experience. International Sports Journal, 4, 78-87.

55. Ysseldyk, R., Matheson, K., ve Anisman, H. (2007). Rumination: Bridging a gap between forgivingness, vengefulness, and psychological health. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 1573-1584.

Kaynak Göster

APA Aksoy, H , Ascı, F . (2021). Sporcularda Optimal Performans Duygu Durumu: Ruminatif Düşünce ve Akıldışı İnançların Rolü Üzerine Bir Çalışma . Spor Bilimleri Dergisi , 32 (2) , 53-63 . DOI: 10.17644/sbd.760444