Ultramodern Psychology: A Vision Construction with Culture, Religion, Cognitive Science and Neurotheology

This research paper focuses on the evaluation of historical connections and interactions between psychology, psychiatry, psychologists, beliefs and religions. The argument of this research is; for developing future perspectives on psychology, religion can possibly provide historical and modern tools, as well as various other contributions. Within the scope of this research paper, the main idea and some other relevant arguments have been developed by evaluating historical facts and scientific analysis presented under the sub-sections of this essay, namely; psychology, beliefs and interdisciplinary connections, nonmaterial beliefs in cultural psychology, science and religion: a synergetic approach is possible, studying psychology and religion, psychology of religion, psychological benefits of religion, interpreting and utilizing new brain sciences of neurotheology and cognitive science. The conclusion briefly summarizes diverse understandings formed through the evaluation of these sub-sections. This research illustrates the coexistence of religious and scientific knowledge using the emergence of modern psychology. On the other hand, some arguments regarding the commercialization of research targets, the transformation of science into neoliberal market discourses leading to some kind of social Darwinism, or regarding some of the influences of some of the sponsors; some of the leaders; some of the foundations; some of the scientism ideologies; and various global agendas are shared to illustrate the necessity to be cautious.

Ultramodern Psikoloji: Kültür, Din, Algısal Bilim ve Nöroteoloji ile bir Tasavvur İnşası

Bu araştırma makalesi psikoloji, psikiyatri, psikologlar, inançlar ve dinler arasındaki tarihi bağlantılar ve etkileşimlerin değerlendirilmesine odaklanır. Bu araştırmanın savı: psikolojinin gelecek öngörüleri geliştirilmesi için din, muhtemel tarihi ve modern araçlar sağlayabilecek ve diğer çeşitli katkılar sunabilecektir. Bu araştırma makalesinin kapsamı dâhilinde ana fikir ve diğer ilgili argümanlar, tarihi gerçekler ve bu makalenin alt bölümlerindeki bilimsel çözümlemeler değerlendirilmek suretiyle geliştirilmiştir. Bu alt bölümler: psikoloji, inançlar ve disiplinler arası bağlantılar; kültürel psikolojide maddi-olmayan inanışlar; bilim ve din, sinerji yaklaşımının mümkünlüğü; psikoloji ve din üzerine çalışmak; dinin psikolojisi; dinin psikolojik faydaları; yeni beyin bilimlerinden nöroteoloji ve bilişsel (algısal) bilimi yorumlamak ve faydalanmak. Sonuç bölümü ise yukarıda belirtilen alt bölümlerin değerlendirilmesi yoluyla oluşturulan muhtelif anlayışları kısaca özetler. Bu araştırma, modern psikolojinin ortaya çıkışını kullanarak dini ve bilimsel bilginin bir arada varlığını tasvir eder. Diğer taraftan, araştırma amaçlarının ticarileşmesi, bilimin çeşitli Toplumsal Darwinci türlerine yönlendiren neoliberal piyasa kavramlarına dönüşümü hakkında veya, muhtelif sponsorların, muhtelif liderlerin, bazı vakıfların, bazı bilimcilik ideolojilerinin ve muhtelif küresel gündemlerin tesirleri hakkında bazı iddialar, dikkatli davranılması gereğine işaret edilmek amacıyla paylaşılmıştır.

Kaynakça

Adams, G. & Dobles, I. & Gomez, L. H. & Kurtiş, T. & Ludwin E. Molina (2015). Decolonizing Psychological Science: Introduction to the Special Thematic Section. Journal of Social and Political Psychology, Vol. 3(1), 213–238, doi:10.5964/jspp.v3i1.564

Ai, A. L., Peterson, C., & Huang, B. (2003). Research: The effect of religious–spiritual coping on positive attitudes of adult Muslim refugees from Kosovo and Bosnia. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 13(1), 29–47.

Aldridge, A. (2008). Religion in the Contemporary World, A Sociological Introduction, Second Edition, Polity Press.

Allport, G. W. (1935). Attitudes. in C. M. Murchison (Ed.), Handbook of Social Psychology, (pp. 789-844) Worcester, MA: Clark University Press.

Allport, G. W. (1966). Religious Context of Prejudice. Journal of the Scientific Study of Religion, 5, (pp. 447-457)

Allport, G. W. (1985). The Historical Background of Modern Social Psychology. in G. Lindzey & Elliot Aronson (Eds.), The Handbook of Social Psychology, Third Edition, vol. 1, (pp. 1-46), Newberry Award Records Inc.

American Psychiatric Association. (2007). Position Statement: Resolution Condemning the Role of Psychiatrist Radovan Karadzic in Human Rights Abuses in the Former Yugoslavia. Council on International Affairs, Committee on Human Rights, Retrieved from https://www.psychiatry. org/File%20Library/About-APA/Organization-Documents-Policies/Policies/Position-2007- Karadzic-Human-Rights-Abuses.pdf 16.06.19

American Psychiatric Association. (2010). Practice Guideline For The Assessment And Treatment Of Patients With Suicidal Behaviors, Retrieved from https://psychiatryonline.org/pb/assets/raw/ sitewide/practice_guidelines/guidelines/suicide.pdf 16.06.19

American Psychiatric Association. (2018). Mental Health Disparities: Muslim Americans, Retrieved from https://www.psychiatry.org/File%20Library/Psychiatrists/Cultural-Competency/MentalHealth-Disparities/Mental-Health-Facts-for-Muslim-Americans.pdf 16.06.19

Argyle, M. & Beit-Hallahmi, B. (1975). The Social Psychology of Religion, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London (rev. ed. Argyle 1958).

Aronson, E., Wilson T. D. & Akert, R. M. (2005). Social Psychology, Fifth Edition, Pearson Education Inc. New Jersey.

Ashbrook, J. B. (1997). Mind As Humanizing The Brain: Toward A Neurotheology Of Meaning. Zygon, vol. 32, no. 3.

Ashbrook, J. B. & Albright, C. R. (1999). Religion and Science Conversation: A Case Illustration. Zygon, vol. 34, no. 3.

Attala, J. & Orwig, J. & Salter, L. (2018). A Neuroscientist Explains Why Reality May Just Be A Hallucination. Business Insider, Retrieved from https://www.businessinsider.com/neuroscientistexplains-why-reality-hallucination-meaning-2018-3 16.06.19

Batson, D. C. & Schoenrade, P. & Ventis, W. L. (1993). Religion and the Individual, Oxford University Press, New York.

Belzen, J. A. (2010). Towards Cultural Psychology of Religion, Principles, Approaches, Applications, Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Berger, P. L. (1990). The Sacred Canopy: Elements of a Sociological Theory of Religion, Anchor Books, Random House Inc. New York.

Berger, P. L. (2013). Identity as a Problem in the Sociology of Knowledge, in Pfadenhauer, M., The New Sociology of Knowledge, The Life and Work of Peter L. Berger, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, New Jersey

Bhalla D. (2018). Practice of Religion as a Therapeutic Tool For Obtaining Neuropsychiatric Benefits, Mathews Journal of Neurology, 3(1): 011.

Bird, Y. M. (2005). Neurodecolonization, Using Mindfulness Practices to Delete The Neural Networks of Colonialism. in Waziyatawin, A. W. & Bird, M. Y. (Eds.), For Indegenous Minds Only: A Decolonization Handbook, School of American Research.

Borchert, T. (2017). History and Diversity of Religion. in Tibayrenc, M. & Francisco J. Ayala (Eds.), On Human Nature, Biology, Psychology, Ethics, Politics, and Religion, Academic Press, Elsevier Inc.

Bruner, J. (1995). Meaning and Self in Cultural Perspective. in Bakhurst, D. & Christine Synowich (Eds.), The Social Self, Sage Publications, London.

Bush, D. M. & Simmons, R. G. (1981). Socialization Process Over the Life Course. in Rosenberg, M. & Ralph H. Turner (Eds.), Social Psychology Sociological Perspectives, Basic Books Inc. New York.

Cammack, M. (1995). In Search of the Post-Positivist Jury. Indiana Law Journal: Vol. 70: Iss. 2, Article 2, Retrieved from http://repository.law.indiana.edu/ilj/vol70/iss2/2

Cathomen, T. & Schüle, S. & Schüssler-Lenz, M. & Abou-El-Enein, M. (2019). The Human Genome Editing Race: Loosening Regulatory Standards for Commercial Advantage?. Trends in Biotechnology, Vol. 37, Issue 2.

Chiao, J.Y., (2010). At the Frontier of Cultural Neuroscience: Introduction to the Special Issue. Social, Cognition and Affective Neuroscience, 5, (pp.109-110).

Clark, K. J., & Barrett, J. L. (2011). Reidian Religious Epistemology and the Cognitive Science of Religion. Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 79, (pp. 639–675). doi:10.1093/jaarel/ lfr008

Craig, W. L. (1979). The Kalām Cosmological Argument, Macmillan, London, UK

Crick, F. (1994). Astonishing Hypothesis: The Scientific Search for the Soul, Touchstone, New York.

Cunningham, P. F. (2011). Are Religious Experiences Really Localized Within the Brain? The Promise, Challenges, andProspects of Neurotheology. The Journal of Mind and Behavior, Vol. 32, No. 3, Institute of Mind and Behavior, Inc. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/ stable/43854461

Dawkins, R. (2006). The God Delusion, Bantam Books, New York.

De Cruz, H. & De Smedt, J. (2011). The Cognitive Appeal of The Cosmological Argument. Method & Theory in the Study of Religion, 23, pp. 103–122.

Dennett, D. C. (2006). Breaking the spell: Religion as a natural phenomenon, New York, NY: Penguin.

DeSeno, D. (2019). What Science Can Learn From Religion. The New York Times, Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2019/02/01/opinion/sunday/science-religion.html 16.06.19

Devine, P. G., Hamilton, D. L. & Ostrom, T. M. (1994). Social Cognition and Classic Issues in Social Psychology. In Devine, P. G., Hamilton, D. L. & Ostrom, T. M (Eds.), Social Cognition: Impact on Social Psychology, Academic Press Inc. U.S.A.

Dixon, S. & Wilcox, G. (2016). The Counseling Implications of Neurotheology: A Critical Review. Journal Of Spirituality In Mental Health, Vol. 18, No. 2, Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.10 80/19349637.2015.1064804

Einstein, A. (1941). In: Science, Philosophy and Religion, a Symposium. The Conference on Science, Philosophy and Religion in Their Relation to the Democratic Way of Life, New York.

Elk, M. V. & Aleman, A. (2016). Brain Mechanisms In Religion And Spirituality: An Integrative Predictive Processing Framework. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 73, Elsevier, Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.12.031

Fadilpašić, S. & Maleč, D. & Džubur-Kulenović, A. (2017). Relationship of Religiousness And Religious Coping With Quality of Life Among War Trauma Survivors. Psychiatria Danubina, 2017; Vol. 29, No. 3, pp 291-301 Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.24869/psyd.2017.291

Farr, R. M. (1996). Modern Social Psychology: a Characteristically American Phenomenon. The roots of Modern Social Psychology 1872-1954, Blackwell Publishers Ltd.

Festinger, L. & H. W. Riecken & Schachter, S. (1958). When Prophecy Fails. in Maccoby, E. E & Newcomb, T. M. & Eugene L. Hartley (Eds.), Readings in Social Psychology, Holt, Reinehart and Winston Inc., U.S.A.

Fleming, F. (2016). The Truth About Science & Religion From The Big Bang To Neuroscience, Wipf and Stock Publishers, OR, USA

Fontana, D. (2003). Psychology, Religion, and Spirituality, British Psychological Society and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Franzoi, S. L. (2003). Social Psychology, Third Edition, The McGraw-Hill New York. Gallup Poll. (2011). Evolution, Creationism, Intelligent Design. Retrieved from http://www.gallup. com 15/12/2015.

Geertz, C. (1973). The Interpretation of Cultures. Basic Books, New York.

Gergen, K. J. (1997). Social Psychology as Social Construction: The Emerging Vision. in McGarty, C. & Haslam, A. S. (Eds.), The Message of Social Psychology, Perspectives on Mind in Society, Blackwell Publishers Ltd.

Gergen, K. J. (2010). The Acculturated Brain. Theory & Psychology, Vol. 20 (6): 1-20 DOI: 10.1177/0959354310370906

Gergen, K.J. (1998). Construction and Realism: How Are We to Go On. in Parker, I. (Ed.), Social Constructivism, Discourse and Realism, Sage Publications.

Gold, M. & Douvan, E. (1997). A New Outline of Social Psychology. American Psychological Association, Washington D.C.

Gripentrog, S. (2018). Mapping The Boundaries Between Science and Religion. In Lüddeckens, D. & Monika Schrimpf (Eds.), Medicine-Religion-Spirituality, Global Perspectives on Traditional, Complementary, and alternative Healing, Verlag, Bielefeld.

Hall, G. S. (1917). Jesus, the Christ, in the light of Psychology, Doubleday, New York.

Helminiak, D. A. (2010). Theistic Psychology And Psychotherapy: A Theological And Scientific Critique. Zygon, vol. 45, no. 1.

Hirst, W. & Davd Manier. D. (2008). Opening Vistas for Cognitive Psychology. In Martin, L. & Nelson, K. and Ethel Tobach, Sociocultural Psychology, Theory and Practice of Doing and Knowing, Cambridge University Press.

Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work Related Values, Beverly Hills, CA:Sage. (also reprint in 2001)

Hogg, M. A. & Vaughan, G. M. (2005). Social Psychology, Pearson Education Limited, England.

Hogg, M. A. (2003). Introducing Social Psychology. Social Psychology, Vol.1, Sage Publications, London.

Hood Jr., R. W. (2012). The History and Current State of Research on Psychology of Religion, in Miller, L. J. The Oxford Handbook of Psychology and Spirituality, Oxford University Press, New York.

Hood, Jr. R. W. & Hill, P. C. & Spilka, B. (2009). The Psychology of Religion, an Empirical Approach, Fourth Edition, The Guilford Press, U.S.A.

Jackson, J. M. (1988). Social Psychology, Past and Present, An Integrative Orientation, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc. New Jersey.

James, W. (1902). The Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press (reprint 1985).

James, W. (1902). The Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature, Longmans, Green, And Co. Cambridge University Press (digitally printed version 2012).

Jeeves, M. & Brown, W. S. (2009). Neuroscience, Psychology, and Religion: Illusions, Delusions, and Realities about Human Nature, Templeton Foundation Press, USA

Jeeves, M. (2008). Psychologising and Neurologising about Religion: Facts, Fallacies and the Future Transcript, Gresham College, Retrieved from https://www.gresham.ac.uk/lecture/ transcript/download/psychologising-and-neurologising-about-religion-facts-fallacies-and-thefuture/ 16.06.19

Jong, J. (2012). Explaining Religion (Away?) Theism and the Cognitive Science of Religion. Sophia, 52, pp.521–533, Springer Science + Business Media B.V., DOI 10.1007/s11841-012- 0338-9

Jung, C (1963). Memories, Dreams, Reflections, Collins & Routledge & Kegan Paul, London.

Kim-Prieto, C., & Miller, L. (2018). Intersection of Religion and Subjective Well-Being. in E. Diener, S. Oishi, & L. Tay (Eds.), Handbook of Well-Being, Salt Lake City, UT: DEF Publishers. DOI:nobascholar.com

Koenig, H. G. & Larson, D. B. (2001). Religion And Mental Health: Evidence For an Association. International Review of Psychiatry, 13, pp. 67–78 Carfax Publishing, DOI: 10.1080/09540260120037290

Koenig, H. G. (2012). Religion, Spirituality and Health: The Research and Clinical Implications., ISRN Psychiatry, http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/278730 07.06.19

Koenig, H. G. (1994). Aging and God: Spiritual pathways to mental health in midlife and later years, Haworth Pastoral Press, New York

Kuhn, T. S. (1962). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, University of Chicago Press.

Kyriacou, D. (2018). Are We Wired For Spirituality? An Investigation Into The Claims Of Neurotheology. HTS Teologiese Studies/ Theological Studies 74(3), 4973. https://doi. org/10.4102/hts.v74i3.4973

Lager, J. M. (2006) Relationship Among Religious Coping, Psychosocial Factors, And Quality Of Life In Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes, PhD Dissertation, Texas A&M University.

Lahti, D. (2019) in Horgan, G., “Be Careful with Occam’s Razor, You Might Cut Yourself”, Scientific American, Avalable at: https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/cross-check/be-carefulwith-occams-razor-you-might-cut-yourself/?redirect=1 16.06.19

Larson, D. B. (1996) “Have Faith: Religion Can Heal Mental Illness”, In B. Slife (Ed.), Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Psychological Issues (pp. 388-392). Guilford, CT: Dushkin Publishing Group

Lehmann-Muriithi, K. (2017). “Report on Cultural Psychology: A new science of the human nature, Yokohama 2016”, Journal of Mediterranean Knowledge-JMK, 2(1), 123-128. DOI: 10.26409/2017JMK2.1.09

Levin, J. (2016) “Prevalence and religious predictors of healing prayer use in the usa: Findings from the baylor religion survey”, Journal of Religion and Health, 55(4), 1136–1158. https://doi. org/10.1007/s10943-016-0240-9.

Makwana, A. & Grön, G. & Fehr, E. & Hare, T. A. (2015). A Neural Mechanism of Strategic Social Choice Under Sanction-Induced Norm Compliance. eNeuro, 2(3), DOI:http://dx.doi. org/10.1523/ENEURO.0066-14.2015

Mantovani, P. (2018). “Minimal Intellectualism and Gods as Intuitive Regress-Blockers. In H. van Eyghen et al. (eds.), New Developments in the Cognitive Science of Religion, New Approaches to the Scientific Study of Religion, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-90239-5_8

Martin, E. (2000). Mind-body problems. American Ethnologist, 27, pp. 569-590.

Maslow, A. H. (1962). Toward a Psychology of Being, Van Nostrand, NewYork.

Maslow, A. H. (1970). Religions, Values, and Peak-Experiences, Penguin, New York.

McDermott, R. (2017). Culture, Brain and Behavior: The Implications of Neural Plasticity and Development on Social Context and Political Structures. in Tibayrenc, M. & Francisco J. Ayala (Eds.), On Human Nature, Biology, Psychology, Ethics, Politics, and Religion, Academic Press, Elsevier Inc.

McIlhenny, R. (2010). God is in Your Head: Neurotheology and Religious Belief., in Murphy, G. (Ed.), American Theological Inquiry, Biannual Journal of Theology, Culture & History, Vol 3, Issue 2, Minneapolis.

McPhetres, J. & Nguyen, T. T. (2018). Using Findings From The Cognitive Science Of Religion To Understand Current Conflicts Between Religious And Scientific Ideologies. Religion, Brain & Behavior, Vol. 8, No. 4, Routledge, https://doi.org/10.1080/2153599X.2017.1326399

Mcrae, M. (2018). This Quantum Theory Predicts That The Future Might Be Influencing The Past. ScienceAlert Pty Ltd., Retrieved from https://www.sciencealert.com/quantum-physics-theorypredicts-future-might-influence-the-past-retrocausality 16.06.19

Mead, G. H. (1934). Mind, Self & Society from the Standpoint of a Social Behaviorist, in Morris, C. W. (Ed.), University of Chicago Press, Chicago, U.S.A.

Miller, L. J. (2012). Introduction. In Miller, L. J. The Oxford Handbook of Psychology and Spirituality, Oxford University Press, New York.

Mishra, S. K. & Togneri, E. & Tripathi, B. & Trikamji, B. (2015). Spirituality and Religiosity and Its Role in Health and Diseases. Journal of Religion and Health, 56, pp.1282–1301, DOI 10.1007/s10943-015-0100-z

MIT Technology Review (2019). A Quantum Experiment Suggests There’s No Such Thing as Objective Reality. Emerging Technology From the ArXiv, Retrieved from https://www. technologyreview.com/s/613092/a-quantum-experiment-suggests-theres-no-such-thing-asobjective-reality/ 16.06.2019

Morgan, J. H. (2011). Psychology of Religion A Commentary on the Classical Texts, Graduate Theological Foundation, Retrieved from https://www.google.com.tr/url?q=https://www. gtfeducation.org/images/dynamic/file/books/PSYCHOLOGY-OF-RELIGION.pdf&sa=U&v ed=2ahUKEwjF45mKvMviAhUD4KYKHUL2BMkQFjACegQIBRAB&usg=AOvVaw08- MbzVv-EoGOIo1CazVQf 16.06.19

Myers, D. G. (2000). The Funds, Friends, And Faith of Happy People. American Psychologist, 55(1), pp. 56-67, doi:10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.56

Newberg, A. (2016). How God Changes Your Brain: An Introduction to Jewish Neurotheology. CCAR Journal: The Reform Jewish Quarterly, Winter 2016, Central Conference of American Rabbis, New York.

Newberg, A. (2010). Principles of Neurotheology, Ashgate Publishing Limited, England. Nissen, R. D. & Gildberg, F.A. & Hvidt, N. C. (2018). Psychiatry, a Secular Discipline in a Postsecular World? A Review. Religions, 9, 32; doi:10.3390/rel9010032

Norman, W. D. & Jeeves, M.A. (2010). Neurotheology: Avoiding a Reinvented Phrenology. Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith, Vol. 62, No. 4, American Scientific Affiliation.

Oman, D. (2018). Model of Individual Health Effects from Religion/Spirituality: Supporting Evidence. in Oman, D. (Ed.), Why Religion and Spirituality Matter for Public Health Evidence, Implications, and Resources, Religion, Spirituality and Health: A Social Scientific Approach, Springer International Publishing.

Pargament, K. I. (1997). The Psychology Of Religion And Coping: Theory, Research, And Practice, New York: Guilford Press, 1997.

Pargement, K. I. & Hill, P. C. (2003). Advances in the Conceptualization and Measurement of Religion and Spirituality, Implications for Physical and Mental Health Research. American Psychologist, Vol 58, No. 1.

Pepitone, A. (1997). Nonmaterial Beliefs: Theory and Research in Cultural Social Psychology. In McGarty, C. & Haslam, A. S. (Eds.), The Message of Social Psychology, Perspectives on Mind in Society, Blackwell Publishers Ltd.

PEW Research Center (2019) Religion’s Relationship to Happiness, Civic Engagement and Health Around the World. Religion and Public Life, Retrieved from https://www.pewforum. org/2019/01/31/religions-relationship-to-happiness-civic-engagement-and-health-around-theworld/ 16.06.19

Pyysiäinen, I. (2014). Cognitive Science of Religion. in Watts, F. & Leon Turner (Eds.), Evolution, Religion, and Cognitive Science: Critical and Constructive Essays, Oxford University Press, UK.

Quran, Kuran-ı Kerim, Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı, Retrieved from http://kuran.diyanet.gov.tr/ mushaf/kuran-meal-1/fatiha-suresi-1/ayet-1/diyanet-isleri-baskanlıgı-meali-1 16.06.19

Reber, J. S. (2006). Secular Psychology: What’s The Problem? Journal of Psychology and Theology, Vol. 34, No. 3, pp. 193-204, Rosemead School of Psychology, Biola University.

Rosmarin, D. H., Pargament, K. I., & Mahoney, A. (2009). The role of religiousness in anxiety, depression, and happiness in a Jewish community sample: A preliminary investigation. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 12, pp. 97-113, doi:10.1080/13674670802321933

Samuels, R. (2017). Psychoanalyzing the Politics of the New Brain Sciences, Palgrave Macmillan, Springer International Publishing AG, Cham, Switzerland.

Saniotis, A. (2015). Understanding Mind/Body Medicine from Muslim Religious Practices of Salat and Dhikr. Journal of Religion and Health, 57 (3), DOI 10.1007/s10943-014-9992-2

ScienceDaily (2018). Scientists Identify a New Kind of Human Brain Cell. Allen Institute, Retrieved from https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/08/180827180809.htm 16.06.19

Semin, G. (1997). The Relevance of Language for Social Psychology. in McGarty, C. & Haslam, A. S. (Eds.), The Message of Social Psychology, Perspectives on Mind in Society, Blackwell Publishers Ltd.

Seybold, K. (2007). Explorations in Neuroscience, Psychology and Religion, Ashgate Publishing Limited, England.

Sherman, S. J., Judd, C., & Park, B. (1989). Social Cognition. in M.R. Rosenzweig & L. W. Porter (Eds.), Annual Review of Psychology, Vol. 40, pp.281-286, Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.

Smith, P. B. & Bond, M. H. (1998). Social Psychology Across Cultures, Prentice Hall Europe, Hertfordshire.

Society for Christian Psychology (2019). Mission Statement. in Palmer. K., Christian Psychology: An Introduction & Biblical Analysis, Association of Certified Biblical Counselors, Retrieved from https://biblicalcounseling.com/resources/acbc-essays/christian-psychology-introductionbiblical-analysis/#_ftn37 16.06.19

Spinks, G. S. (1963). Psychology and Religion, Methuen, London.

Still, A. (1998). Historical Origins of Social Psychology. in Sapsford, R. & Still, A. & Miell, D. & Stevens, R. & Margaret Wetherell (Eds.), Theory and Social Psychology, Sage Publications in association with Open University.

Tolstoy, L. N. (1893 / 1987) Religion and Morality. in A Confession and Other Religious Writings (J. Kentish, trans.), Penguin, New York.

Triandis, H. C. (1994). Analyzing Subjective Culture. Culture and Social Behavior, McGraw Hill Inc. U.S.A.

Turner, L. (2014). Neither Friends nor Enemies: The Complex Relationship Between Cognitive and Humanistic Accounts of Religious Belief. in Watts, F. & Leon Turner (Eds.), Evolution, Religion, and Cognitive Science: Critical and Constructive Essays, Oxford University Press, UK.

Van Bavel, J. & Haslam, A. S. & Reicher, S. (2019). Rethinking the Infamous Stanford Prison Experiment. Scientific American, Retrieved from https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/ observations/rethinking-the-infamous-stanford-prison-experiment/?redirect=1 16.06.19

Varvatsoulias, G. (2013). Cognitive Behavioural Therapy: A Transformative Approach to Negative Appraisals of Religious Origin. Psychological Thought, Vol. 6(1), pp. 62–74, doi:10.5964/psyct. v6i1.61.

Verschuuren, G. M. (2017). Religion Viewed from Different Sciences. in Tibayrenc, M. & Francisco J. Ayala (Eds.), On Human Nature, Biology, Psychology, Ethics, Politics, and Religion, Academic Press, Elsevier Inc.

Walkerdine, V. & Blackman, L. (2008). Psychology and Cultural Analysis, in Bennet, T. & John Frow (Eds.), The Sage Handbook of Cultural Analysis, Sage Publications, London.

Weker, M. (2016). Searching for Neurobiological Foundations of Faith and Religion. Studia Humana, Vol. 5:4, DOI: 10.1515/sh-2016-0024

White, A. D. (1896). A History of Te Warfare of Science With Theology in Christendom, D. Appleton and Company, New York, Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/ahistorywarfare00goog/ page/n3 16.06.19

Whitehouse, H. (2008). Cognitive Evolution and Religion; Cognition and Religious Evolution. Researchgate, Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/255849004 16.06.19

Williams Jr., R. M. (1958). Religion, Value Orientations, and Intergroup Conflict. in Maccoby, E. E & Newcomb, T. M. & Eugene L. Hartley (Eds.), Readings in Social Psychology, Holt, Reinehart and Winston Inc., U.S.A.

Wissenbacher, A. C. (2015). Ten Principles for Interpreting Neuroscientific Pronouncements Regarding Human Nature. Dialog: A Journal of Theology, Vol. 54, No 1. Wiley Periodicals and Dialog, Inc.

Wundt, W. (1912). An Introduction to Psychology, London: George Allen & Unwin, Ltd. Ruskin House, 40 Museum St. W.C. 1. (Reprinted in 1924) Available at: https://archieve.org/details/ principlesofphys00wundiala/page/n6 11.12.2019

Xuzhou, L. & Weissman, M. & Talati, A. & Svob, C. & Wickramaratne, P. & Posner, J. & Dongrong Xu (2019). A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study of Brain Microstructural Changes Related to Religion and Spirituality in Families at High Risk for Depression. Brain and Behavior published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., https://doi.org/10.1002/brb3.1209

Kaynak Göster