Satir Transformational Systemic Therapy and Spirituality

This study addresses the topic of integrating spirituality into the Satir method, which was pioneered by Virginia Star and is included within experiential family therapies. The concept of spirituality, which had been included in individual therapies after the 1950s, also found room particularly after 1990 in family therapies together with the Satir method. The goal in the spirituality-based Satir method is to increase the client’s adaptability and communication skills by integrating spirituality in the psychological counseling process. In addition, this approach also aims to have families notice their emotions using spiritual techniques. Satir, who does not limit her approach to any single religious tradition, can be said to have adopted the concept of universal spirituality. While the concept of spirituality has newly been included in individual psychological counseling in Turkey, it still has no place in the dimensions of family therapy. Little research has been encountered on this topic in the literature as well, and because new studies are felt needed, this work is being carried out. This study is believed to provide an important contribution to the literature. This study makes mention primarily of the Satir method as a representative of experiential family therapy, the Satir method’s views on spirituality, how spirituality can be applied in this approach, and how necessary the therapeutic process is in the spirituality-based approach. Afterward, the role and responsibilities of the psychological counselor in the spiritualityintegrated Satir method are explained, and the techniques included in Satir’s spirituality-based approach are mentioned. Lastly, a case study founded on Satir’s spirituality-based family therapy approach has been included, and the issue has been generally summarized

Satir Dönüşümsel Sistemik Terapi ve Maneviyat

Bu çalışma, Yaşantısal Aile Terapisi içinde yer alan Virginia Satir’in öncülüğünü yaptığı Satir Aile Terapisinin içine maneviyatın entegre edilmesini konu edinmektedir. 1950’lerden sonra bireysel terapilerde yer edinen maneviyat kavramı, 1990 sonrasında özellikle Satir ile birlikte aile terapilerinde de yer bulmuştur. Manevi Temelli Satir Aile Terapisinde amaç, maneviyatı psikolojik danışma sürecine entegre ederek danışanların uyum ve iletişim becerilerini artırmaktır. Ayrıca bu yaklaşımda, manevi tekniklerin kullanılması ile aile üyelerine duyguların fark ettirilmesi de amaçlanmaktadır. Yaklaşımını herhangi bir dini gelenekle sınırlandırmayan Satir’in evrensel maneviyat kavramını benimsediği söylenebilir. Ülkemizde maneviyat kavramı yeni yeni bireysel psikolojik danışmada yer alırken henüz aile terapisi boyutunda herhangi bir yere sahip değildir. Alanyazında da bu konuda az sayıda araştırmaya rastlanmıştır ve yeni çalışmalara ihtiyaç duyulduğundan bu çalışma gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bu çalışmanın alanyazına önemli bir katkı sunacağına inanılmaktadır. Bu çalışmada öncelikle Satir’in de temsilcisi olduğu Yaşantısal Aile Terapisinden, Satir Aile Terapisinin maneviyata bakışından, bu yaklaşımda maneviyatın nasıl uygulanabileceğinden ve manevi temelli yaklaşımda terapötik sürecin nasıl olması gerektiğinden söz edilmiştir. Ardından maneviyatın entegre edildiği Satir Aile Terapisinde psikolojik danışmanın rol ve sorumlulukları anlatılmış, Satir’in manevi temelli yaklaşımında yer alan tekniklerden bahsedilmiştir. En son, Satir’in manevi temelli aile terapisi yaklaşımına dayanan bir vaka örneğine yer verilmiş ve konu genel olarak özetlenmiştir.

Kaynakça

Ahmed, S. & Amer, M. M. (2015). Müslümanlar için psikolojik danışma. (V. Yorgun, Çev.). Ankara: Nobel Yayıncılık.

Akça Koca, D. (2017a). Satir aile terapisinde manevi içerikli uygulamalar. H. Ekşi (Ed.), Psikoterapi ve psikolojik danışmada maneviyat: Kuramlar ve uygulamalar (s. 391-414). İstanbul: Kaknüs Yayıncılık.

Akça Koca, D. (2017b). Spirituality-Based analysis of Satir family therapy. Spiritual Psychology and Counseling, 2(2), 121-142.

Bentheim, S. (2009). Integrating Wilber: A therapist’s reflections on the integral theories of Ken Wilber. The Satir Journal, 3(2), 101-112.

Breen, G. V. (1996). The family system grief process as a communicated process: Understanding grief through Virginia Satir’s growth model (Unpublished master thesis). University of Toronto, Toronto.

Brothers, B. J. (2000). Virginia Satir. In Suhd, M., Dodson, L. & Gormori, M. (Eds.), Virginia Satir: Her life and circle of influence (pp. 1-102). Palo Alto, CA: Science and Behavior Books.

Carlson, J., Sperry, L. & Lewis, J. (1997). Family therapy. California: Brooks/Cole Publishing.

Carlson, T., Fitzpatrick, D., Hecker, L. & Killmer, J. M. (2002). Religion, spirituality, and marriage and family therapy: A study of family therapists’ beliefs about the appropriateness of addressing religious and spiritual issues in therapy. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 30, 157-171.

Caston, C. (2009). Using the Satir family tools to reduce burnout in family caregivers. The Satir Journal, 3(2), 39-72.

Cook, E. P. & Kelly, V. A. (1998). Spirituality and counseling. Counseling and Human Development, 30(6), 1-16.

Dawson, J. S. (2008). A spiritual resource of hope and healing for parents of seriously ill children (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Theological School of Drew University, New Jersey.

Duba, J. D. & Watts, R. E. (2009). Therapy with religious couples. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65(2), 210-223.

Ekşi, H., Kaya, Ç. ve Çiftçi, M. (2016). Maneviyat ve psikolojik danışma. H. Ekşi ve Ç. Kaya (Ed.), Manevi Yönelimli Psikoterapi ve Psikolojik Danışma (s. 11-26). İstanbul: Kaknüs Yayıncılık.

Frame, M. W. (2003). Integrating religion and spirituality into counseling: A comprehensive approach. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Gladding, S. T. (1998). Family therapy. History, theory and practice (2. Baskı). New Jersey: Merrill Prentice Hall.

Gladding, S. T. (2015). Aile Terapisi: Tarihi, kuram ve uygulamaları (5. Baskı). (İ. Keklik ve İ. Yıldırım, Çev.). Ankara: Türk Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Derneği.

Griffith, B. A. & Rotter, J. C. (1999). Families and spirituality: Therapists as facilitators. The Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, 7(2), 161-164.

Gülerce, A. (1996). Türkiye’de ailelerin psikolojik örüntüleri (1.Baskı). İstanbul: Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Yayınları.

Haber, R. (2002). Virginia Satir: An integrated, humanistic approach. Contemporary Family Therapy: An International Journal, 24, 23-34.

Haque, A. (2018). Conducting spiritually integrated family therapy with Muslim clients utilizing a culturally responsive paradigm. In Carrie York, A. K. (Eds.). Islamically Integrated Psychotherapy (pp. 103-126). West Conshohocken, PA: Templeton Press.

Haug, I. E. (1998). Spirituality as a dimension of family therapists’ clinical training. Contemporary Family Therapy, 20(4), 471-483.

Helmeke, K. B. & Bischof, G. H. (2007). Couple therapy and spirituality and religion. Journal of Couple & Relationship Therapy, 6(1), 2, 167–179.

Horozcu, Ü. (2010). Tecrübî araştırmalar ışığında dindarlık ve maneviyat ile ruhsal ve bedensel sağlık arasındaki ilişki. Milel ve Nihal, 7(1), 209-240.

İlhan, T. ve Özdemir, Y. (2013). Otantiklik Ölçeğinin Türkçe’ye uyarlanması: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması. Türk Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Dergisi, 5(40), 142-153.

Kang, Y. H. (2010). Parent-child interactions in Korean Americans: An application of the Satir model (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, Chicago.

Ko, M. J. & Kim, B. W. (2010). Development and validity of the congruence scale based on Satir’s growth model. The Satir Journal, 4(1), 53-83.

Krook, D. (2008) The role of spirituality in coping: Examining the relationships between spiritual dimensions and coping styles. Mental Health, Religion, and Culture, 11, 643-653.

Lee, B. K. (2001). The religious significance of the Satir Model: Philosophical, ritual and empirical perspectives (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Ottawa, Canada.

Lee, B. K. (2002). Development of a congruence scale based on the Satir model. Contemporary Family Therapy, 24(1), 217-239.

Loeschen, S. (1998). Systematic training in the skills of Virginia Satir. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Mitten, T. J. & Connell, G. M. (2004). The core variables of symbolic-experiential therapy: A qualitative study. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 30, 467-478.

Mook, S. L. (1997). The pastoral counseling relationship as a means of transformation: A theological, psychological and methodological study of transformation (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Luther Theological Seminary, Minnesota.

Morrison, A. & Ferris, J. (2002). The Satir model with female adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Contemporary Family Therapy, 24(1), 161-180.

Murdock, N. L. (2013). Psikolojik danışma ve psikoterapi kuramları: Olgu sunumu yaklaşımıyla (2. Baskı). (F. Akkoyun, Çev.). Ankara: Nobel Yayıncılık.

Nazlı, S. (2016). Aile danışmanlığı (12. Baskı). Ankara: Anı Yayıncılık.

Nesbitt, C. (2010). A series of meditations from Virginia Satir: Self-esteem maintenance kit. The Satir Journal, 4(1), 156-162.

Nichols, M. & Schwartz, R. (1998). Family therapy (4. Baskı). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Pargament, K. I. (2002). The bitter and the sweet: An evaluation of the costs and benefits of religiousness. Psychological Inquiry, 13(3), 168–181.

Pargament, K. I., Murray-Swank, N. A. & Tarakeshwar, N. (2005). An empirically based rationale for a Spiritually Integrated Psychotherapy. Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 8(3), 155-165.

Pargament, K. I. (2007). Spiritually integrated psychotherapy understanding an adressing the sacred. New York: The Gullford Press.

Piddocke, S. (2010). The self: Reflections on its nature and structure according to the Satir model. The Satir Journal, 4(1), 109-154.

Polanski, P. J. (2003). Spirituality in supervision. Counseling and Values, 47, 131-141.

Rogers, C. R. (2003). Etkileşim Grupları. (H. Erbil, Çev.) İstanbul: Doruk Yayıncılık.

Ruhl, M. R. (2013). Clients’ experiences of family constellations in psychological healing (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Michigan School of Professional Psychology, Hills.

Satir, V. & Baldwin, M. (1983). Satir step by step. Palo Alto, CA: Science and Behavior Books.

Satir, V. (1988). The new peoplemaking. Mountain View, CA: Science and Behavior Books.

Satir, V., Banmen, J., Gerber, J. & Gomori, M. (1991). The Satir model: Family therapy and beyond. Palo Alto, CA: Science and Behavior Books.

Satir, V. (2001). İnsan yaratmak: Aile terapisinin başyapıtı (1. Baskı). (S. Yeniçeri, Çev.). İstanbul: Beyaz Yayınları.

Satir, V. (2008). A partial portrait of a family therapist in process. In Banmen, J. (Eds.), In Her Own Words: Selected Papers (pp. 1963-1983). Phoenix, AZ: Zeig, Tucker and Thiessen, Inc.

Srikosai, S. (2008). Effects of individual psychotherapy using the Satir model on an alcohol dependent and depressed patient. The Satir Journal, 2(3), 5-19.

Srikosai, S., Thapinta, D., Kittirattanapaiboon, P. & Piyavhatkul, N. (2014). Effectiveness of an alcohol relapse prevention program based on the Satir model in alcohol-dependent women. CMU Journal Natural Sciences, 13(2), 227-239.

Summermatter, A. (2017). Bilişsel davranışçı terapiler ve maneviyat. H. Ekşi (Ed.), Psikoterapi ve Psikolojik Danışmada Maneviyat Kuramlar ve Uygulamalar (s. 87-113). İstanbul: Kaknüs Yayıncılık.

Tam, E. P. C. (2006). Satir model of family therapy and spiritual direction. Pastoral Psychology, 54(3), 275-287.

Thickens, T. Q. (2012). Best practices in couple and family therapy spiritual diversity educaion: Experts’ beliefs, experiences and recommendations (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). California School of Professional Psychology Alliant International University, California.

Wai Lan, E. W. (2015). Becoming a star: Hong Kong Chinese Participants’ experiences in the Virginia Satir family reconstruction (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Alliant International University, Hong Kong.

Walsh, J. & Harrigan, M. (2003). The termination stage in Bowen’s family systems theory. Clinical Social Work Journal, 31(4), 383-394.

Whitaker, C. A. (1990). “I had to learn because I wasn’t being taught.” Contemporary Family Therapy, 12, 181-183.

Woods, M. D. & Martin, D. (1984). The work of Virginia Satir: Understanding her theory and technique. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 12(4), 3-11.

Worthington E. L. & Aten, J. D. (2009). Psychotherapy with religious and spiritual clients: An introduction. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65(2), 123-130.

Wretman, C. J. (2016). Saving Satir: Contemporary perspectives on the Change Process Model. Social Work, 61(1), 61-68.

Yang, P. (2000). From caterpillar to butterfly: An action research of educational program based on the Satir model for women in Taiwan (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Tennessee, Knoxville.

Yang Li, M. E. & Lou, V. (2013). Applying the Satir Model of counseling in Mainland China: Illustrated with 20 case sessions. Satir Journal of Counseling and Family Therapy, 1, 18-39.

Kaynak Göster