Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine diagnostic success of thoracic ultrasonography (US)-guided transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy (TTFNAB) performed by chest physicians for anterior mediastinal lesions.Methods: Patients with anterior mediastinal lesions observed with US-guided TTFNAB performed in our clinic between December 2010 and January 2016, were included in the study. Details of clinical, demographic, and radiographic findings of the patients, sonographic appearance and size of the lesions, diagnosis based on US-guided TTFNAB results, final diagnosis, method of final diagnosis, and complications were recorded. Thoracic US was performed by an experienced chest physician using Logiq 7 system (GE Healthcare, Inc. Chicago, IL, USA) with 3.5 MHz convex transducer in abdominal mode.Results: Fourteen patients with mean age of 47.5±13 years were included in the study. Twelve cases (85.7%) were diagnosed with US-guided TTFNAB. Remaining 2 (14.3%) cases could not be diagnosed with this method. The final diagnosis in those 2 cases was squamous cell carcinoma and lymphoma. Lesions in study were both malignant (n=12; 85.7%) and benign (n= 2; 14.3%). Sensitivity and specificity of US-guided TTFNAB were calculated as 85.7% and 100%, respectively. Pneumothorax was observed in only 1 case.Conclusion: US- guided TTFNAB is an easy, accessible, and inexpensive diagnostic method with high diagnostic efficiency, low complication rate, and no radiation exposure
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