Yeni kurumsal iktisat

Yeni kurumsal iktisat, son dönemlerde iktisat literatürüne hem teorik hem de ampirik olarak çok farklı perspektiflerden katkı sağlayan ve bu anlamda, görece sıkışık durumdaki Ortodoks algıya bir açılım imkanı tanıyan disiplinler arası bir iktisadi yaklaşım olarak literatürde kendine ayrıcalıklı bir yer bulmayı başarmıştır. Yaklaşım, kurumlar, kurallar ve organizasyonlar üzerine işlem maliyetleri, sınırlı rasyonalite, mülkiyet hakları, eksik sözleşmeler ve fırsatçılık gibi yeni bir terminolojiyle farklı bir metodolojik perspektif sunmayı başarmış ve böylece, iktisadi faaliyetin kurumsal temellerini pozitif araştırmanın merkezine taşıyarak, günümüzde en canlı ve dinamik iktisat disiplini haline gelmiştir. Bugün itibarıyla, yeni kurumsal iktisat, hakim iktisadi bilgeliği reddetmeden, ama gerçek dışı Neoklasik varsayımları sert bir biçimde eleştirip, yerine gerçekçi teoriler üreterek, yerleşik iktisadi gündemin tam merkezinde bulunmaktadır. Anahtar Sözcükler: Yeni Kurumsal İktisat, İşlem Maliyetleri, Mülkiyet Hakları

New institutional economics

Recently, New Institutional Economics has ensured its own privileged place in literature as an interdisciplinary approach that contributes both empirically and theoretically to economics literature and in that sense, that gives an opportunity to the stranded Orthodoxy perception. The approach has achieved to introduce a different methodological perspective with a new terminology such as transaction costs, bounded rationality, property rights, incomplete contracts, and opportunity over rules, institutions, and organizations. Thus, by bringing the institutional foundations of economic activity to the center of the positive research, it has become the most dynamic and vital discipline in economics. As of today, New Institutional Economics is exactly at the center of the current economic agenda by criticizing Neoclassical assumptions and instead, generating realistic theories, but not rejecting prevailing economic wisdom.

Kaynakça

Alchian, A. ve H. Demsetz (1972); “Production, Information Costs, and Economic Organization”, The American Economic Review, 62, 777-795.

Brousseau, E. ve M. Glachant (2004); “The Economics of Contracts and the Renewal of Economics”, içinde. E. Brousseau ve M. Glachant (der.), The economics of Contracts: Theories and Applications London: Cambridge University Press, 3-30.

Cheung, S. (1983); “The Contractual Nature of the Firm”, Journal of Law and Economics, 26, 1-21.

Coase, R. (1998); “The New Institutional Economics”, The American Economic Review, 88, 72-74

Coase, R. (1984); “The New Institutional Economics”, Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, 140, 229-231.

Coase, R. (1960); “The Problem of Social Cost”, Journal of Law and Economics, 3, 1, 1-44.

Coase, R. (1959); “The Federal Communications Commission” Journal of Law and Economics, 2, 1-40.

Coase, R. (1937); “The Nature of the Firm”, Economica, 4, 386-405.

Cooter, R. ve T. Ulen (2004). Law and economics. 4. bs., Addison Wesley Longman.

Conlisk, J. (1996); “Bounded Rationality and Market Fluctuations”, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 29, 233-250.

Çetin, T. (2010); “İktisadi Etkinlik Üzerine Bir Deneme: X Etkinlik Yaklaşımı”, Doğuş Üniversitesi Dergisi, 11, 183-198.

De Alessi, L. (1983); “Property Rights, Transaction Costs, and X-Efficiency: An Essay in Economic Theory”, The American Economic Review, 73, 64-81.

Demsetz, H. (1983); “The Structure of Ownership and the Theory of the Firm”, Journal of Law and Economics, 26, 375-390.

Demsetz, H. (1967); “Toward a Theory of Property Rights”, American Economic Review, 57, 347.

Ellingsen, T. (1997); “Efficiency Wages and X Inefficiencies”, Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 99, 581-596.

Furubotn, E. (1991); “General Equilibrium Models, Transaction Costs, and the Concept of Efficient Allocation in a Capitalist Economy”, Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, 147, 662-686.

Hart, O. (1988); “Incomplete Contracts and the Theory of the Firm”, Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, 4, 119-139.

Hart, O. (1990); “Is Bounded Rationality an Important Element of a Theory of Institutions?”, Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, 146, 696-702.

Holmstrom, B. ve Tirole, J. (1989); “The Theory of the Firm”, içinde Richard Schmalensee ve Robert D. Willig, der., Handbook of İndustrial Organization. Amsterdam: North- Holland, 61-128.

Joskow, P. (2005). “Vertical Integration”, C. Menard, M. Shirley (ed.), Handbook of new Institutional Economics içinde, Netherlands: Springer.

Joskow, P. (1985); “Vertical Integration and Long-Term Contracts: The Case of Coal-Burning Electric Generating Plants”, Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, 1, 33-80.

Klein, B., R. A. Crawford ve A Alchain (1978); “Vertical Integration, Appropriable Rents, and the Competitive Contracting Process”, Journal of Law and Economics, 21, 297-326.

Leibenstein, H. (1966); “Allocative Efficiency versus X-Efficiency”, American Economic Review, 56, 392-415.

Leibenstein, H. (1978); General X-Efficiency Theory and Economic Development, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Majone, G. (2001), “Nonmajoritarian Institutions and the Limits of Democratic Governance: A Political Transaction-Cost Approach”, Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, 157, 57-78.

Malin, E. ve D. Martimort (2004); “Transaction Costs and Incentive Theory”, E. Brousseau, J. Glachant (ed.), The Economics of Contracts: Theories and Applications içinde. London: Cambridge University Press, 159-179.

Mathews, R. C. O. (1986); “The Economics of Institutions and the Source of Economic Growth”, Economic Journal, 96, 903-918.

Merril, T. W. (2002); “Introduction: The Demsetz Thesis and the Evolution of Property Rights”, Journal of Legal Studies, 31, 331-338.

Milgrom, P., D. North ve B. Weingast (1990); “The Role of Institutions in the Revival of Trade”, Economics and Politics, 2, 1-23.

Moe, T. (1990); “Political Institutions: The Neglected Side of the Story”, Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, 6, 213-253.

Newbery, D. ve J. Stiglitz (1987); “Wage Rigidity, Implicit Contracts, Unemployment and Economic Efficiency”, The Economic Journal, 97, 416-430.

North, D. (2005); Understanding the Process of Economic Change, Princeton University Press.

North, D. (1993); “Institutions and Credible Commitment”, Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, 149, 1-23.

North, D. (1986); “The New Institutional Economics”, Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, 142, 230-237.

Ricketts, M. (2002); The Economics of Business Enterprise: An Introduction to Economic Organisation and the Theory of the Firm. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Rozen, M. (1985); “Maximizing Behavior: Reconciling Neoclassical and X-Efficiency Approaches. Journal of Economic Issues, 19, 661-689.

Simon, H. (1957); Administrative Behavior. 2. ed., Macmillan, New York. Spiller, P. (1996); “Institutions and Commitment”, Industrial and Corporate Change, 5, 421-452.

Stigler, G. (1976); “The Existence of X-Efficiency”, The American Economic Review, 66, 213-216.

Wallis, J. (1989); “Towards a Positive Economic Theory of Institutional Change”, Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, 145, 98-112.

Wiggins, S. (1991); “The Economics of the Firm and Contracts: A Selective Survey”, Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, 147, 603-661.

Williamson, O. (2005); “Transaction Cost Economics”, içinde C. Menard, M. Shirley (ed.), Handbook of New Institutional Economics, Netherlands: Springer.

Williamson, O. (2004); “Contract and economic organization”, içinde Eric Brousseau and Jean-Michel Glachant, The Economics of Contracts Theories and applications, Cambridge University Press, 49-58.

Williamson, O. (1996); “Prologue: The Mechanisms of Governance”, içinde O. Willimson, The Mechanisms of Governance, Oxford University Press, 3-20.

Williamson, O. (1993); “Transaction Cost Economics and Organization Theory,” Industrial and Corporate Change 2, 107-156.

Williamson, O. (1993a); “Transaction-Cost Economics: The Governance of Contractual Relations”, Journal of Law and Economics, 22, 233-261.

Williamson, O. (1990); “A Comparison of Alternative Approaches to Economic Organization”, Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, 146, 61-71.

Williamson, O. (1985); The Economic Institutions of Capitalism, New York: The Free Press.

Williamson, O. (1979); Transaction Cost Economics: The Governance of Contractual Relations. Journal of Law and Economics, 22, 3-61.

Williamson, O. (1975); Markets and Hierarchies: Analysis and Antitrust Implications, New York: Free Press.

Kaynak Göster