Weber'ın iktısat sosyolojısı: Uygarlığı anlamanın anahtarı olarak iktısadı zıhnıyet

İktisat sosyolojisi de dahil sosyolojinin pek çok alt çalışma alanının kurucusu olarak zikredilen Weber’in sosyolojinin ampirik bir bilim olmasında önemli bir yeri vardır. Weber’in sosyolojisi akılcılaşma ekseninde mukayeseli uygarlıklar tarihi çalışmalarıyla modernitenin açıklanması ve tarihsel bir gelişme çizgisine yerleştirilmesi çerçevesinde oluşmuştur. Kapitalizmin oluşumu bağlamında iktisadi açıklamalar Weber’in sosyolojisinin büyük ölçüde bir iktisat sosyolojisi olarak şekillenmesine de yol açmıştır. İlk çalışmalarında daha çok tarihçi bir perspektife sahip olan Weber sonraki çalışmalarında modernitenin açıklanması için daha sosyolojik bir zemine kaymıştır. Bu bağlamda Weber’in iktisat sosyolojisi modernitenin ele alınış biçimine göre genişleyen bir ilgiye sahiptir. İlk eserlerinde modernitenin çeşitli yapılarının kökenlerinin açıklanması ile uğraşan Weber 1904 ve 1909’da yaşanan iki kırılma neticesinde gittikçe dünya tarihsel bir açıklama ve temellendirmeye ulaşmak için daha geniş çaplı çalışmalara girişmiştir. Bu tarihten sonra dünya dinlerinin iktisadi etiğine dair yazdıkları Weber’in modernitenin evrensel bir açıklaması peşinde olduğunu göstermektedir. Böylece Weber’in iktisat sosyolojisinin odağında uygarlığı anlamanın anahtarı olarak gördüğü iktisadi zihniyet çözümlemesinin bulunduğu ileri sürülebilir.

Weber’s economic sociology: Economic weltanschauung as a key to understand the civilisation

Weber has an important place in the making of sociology an empirical science. He is also known as the founder of many sub-fields of sociology, including economic sociology. Weber’s sociology aims to explain modernity around rationalization by positioning it in a historical developmental context. To explain modernity Weber had a broad sociological base in his later studies although he had a narrower historical perspective in his earlier studies. In this context his economic sociology has an expanding vision to construct the development of modernity. As a result of a double break in 1904 and 1909, his scope transformed toward a world-historical level with his studies on the economic ethics of world religions. He tried to explain the development of modernity with the development of the capitalist spirit, which means rationalization of the world. In this way, he wanted to reach a universal outlook of modernity. So, one may state that at the heart of Weber’s economic sociology lies an analysis of economic mentality. As a result, his economic sociology may be explained as the master key to enable understanding of Weber’s social theory.

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