DON KAZAKLARI ARASINDA STENKA RAZİN İSYANI (1670-1671)

Tarihte Rus Kazakları olarak bilinen “Özgür Adamlar”; önceleri uçsuz bucaksız Kıpçak bozkırlarında tekinsiz bir biçimde dolaşarak sınır güvenliğinin zafiyete uğramasına neden olmaktaydılar. Ancak XVII. yüzyıldan itibaren Rusya’nın güney sınırları boyunca yayılmaya başlaması ardından bu topluluklar, yeni efendileri tarafından pratik bir amaç uğruna yeniden teşkilatlandırılarak sınır kasabalarında konuşlandırıldı. Rusya’da Romanovların iktidara gelmesi ardından Kazakların işlevselliği daha da arttı. Onlar hem Rusya sınırlarını Tatar, Kalmuk ve Nogay saldırılarından koruyor hem de Rus askeri gücünün ilerlemesi için öncülük ediyorlardı. Zaman içinde Rus ırkının ve Ortodoksluğun baskın hâle geldiği Kazaklar, Büyük Rus İmparatorluğu’nun itici gücü haline geldiler. Ancak Rus savaş makinesinin en önemli bileşenlerinden biri olan Kazaklar, bazen Rusların bizatihi kendisini hedef alan olayların da başlıca müsebbibi olmaktaydılar. Don ve Volga Kazaklarının lideri Stenka (Stepan) Razin’in 1670-1671 yıllarında bir takım iktisadi gerekçelerle başlatmış olduğu isyan hareketi, Kazaklar arasında hızla yayılarak bir süre sonra Birleşik Kazak Devleti (Cossackdom) kurma hayaline dönüştü. Razin ve onun Özgür Kazakları Çariçin ve Astrahan’ı alarak gözlerini Moskova’ya diktiler. Rus ordusunun müdahalesi ile güçlükle bastırılan Razin İsyanı, Rus Kazaklarının daha sonra başlatacakları benzer isyan girişimlerinin de bir provası niteliğindeydi. Don Kazaklarının efsanevi lideri Stenka Razin’in Moskova’daki Rus Çarı’na karşı yapmış olduğu bu meydan okuma her ne kadar başarısızlıkla sonuçlanmış olsa da ilerleyen yıllarda kendisinin Rus tarihi ve edebiyatının önemli figürlerinden biri haline gelmesini sağladı.

STENKA RAZIN REBELLION AMONG THE DON COSSACKS (1670-1671)

The "Free Men", known as the Russian Cossacks in the past, used to dangerously navigate the vast Kipchak steppes, leading to weakening of border security. However, as Russia started to expand its borders in the south from the 17th century, the Cossacks were reorganized by their new masters for a practical purpose and deployed in border towns. After the Romanov dynasty came to power in Russia, the functionality of the Cossacks increased further. They were not only protecting the Russian borders from the Tatar, Kalmyk and Nogay attacks, but also pioneering the advancement of the Russian military force. Over time, the Russian race and Orthodoxy became dominant among the Cossacks, and they became the driving force of the Great Russian Empire. However, the Cossacks, one of the most important components of the Russian war machine, were also responsible for some events that sometimes targeted the Russians themselves. The rebellion movement initiated by Stenka (Stepan) Razin, the leader of the Don and Volga Cossacks, for a number of economic reasons in 1670-1671, quickly spread among the Cossacks and became a dream to establish a United Cossackdom after a while. Razin and his "Free Cossacks" captured Tsaritsyn and Astrakhan and then targeted Moscow. The Razin rebellion, which was barely stopped by the intervention of the Russian army, was also a rehearsal for a similar rebel attempts that the Russian Cossacks would later launch. Although this challenge by Stenka Razin, the legendary leader of the Don Cossacks, against the Russian Tsar in Moscow failed, it made him one of the most important figures in Russian history and literature in the following years.

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