THE ROLE OF IGNORED MOTIVATORS: INTRINSIC MOTIVATIONS’ EFFECTS ON INTENTION OF USING MHEALTH APPS

With regard to developments in information technology and mobile technology, the healthcare industry has witnessed tremendous changes such as personal analytics, personal informatics etc. mHealth is an area that is emerged from electronic health and the procurement of health services and information via mobile technologies such as mobile phones and personal digital assistants. Healthcare industry and individuals become more interested and curious about the potential benefits of using mHealth. Previous research has mainly studied external motivators of intention to use mHealth apps, thus intrinsic motivations of users which are very critical in directing of behavior are ignored. Therefore, the conceptual model of intrinsic motivators such as self-design, self-discipline, selfentertainment, self-association and self-healing of mHealth app usage intention was tested with 214 respondents by the use of Structural Equation Model (SEM). Self-design, selfdiscipline and self-entertainment motivations were found to affect behavioral intention positively. Academic and managerial implications were also discussed.

GÖZ ARDI EDİLEN MOTİVE EDİCİLERİN ROLÜ: İÇE YÖNELİK MOTİVASYONLARIN MSAĞLIK UYGULAMALARINI KULLANMA NİYETİNE ETKİLERİ

Bilgi teknolojisi ve mobil teknolojideki gelişmelerle birlikte sağlık sektörü; kişisel analitik, niceliksel benlik veya kişisel bilişim gibi muazzam değişikliklere şahit olmuştur. Mobil sağlık uygulamaları elektronik sağlık ve sağlık ve bilgi hizmetlerinin mobil telefonlar ve kişisel dijital asistanlar gibi mobil teknolojiler aracılığıyla temininden ortaya çıkan bir alandır. Sağlık sektörü ve bireyler, bu uygulamaların potansiyel faydalarına daha fazla ilgi duymakta ve faydalarını merak etmektedirler. Önceki araştırmalar, çoğunlukla mobil sağlık uygulamaları uygulamaları kullanma niyetinin dışa yönelik motivasyonlarını çalışmış, dolayısıyla davranışları yönlendirmede çok kritik olan kullanıcıların içsel motivasyonlarını göz ardı etmiştir. Böylece, mobil sağlık uygulamaları kullanma niyetinin öz-tasarım, öz-disiplin, öz-eğlence, öz-birliktelik ve öz-iyileşme gibi içsel motivasyonları kavramsal modeli, 214 katılımcı ile Yapısal Eşitlik Modeli kullanılarak test edilmiştir. Öz-tasarım, öz-disiplin ve öz-eğlence motivasyonlarının, davranışsal niyeti olumlu yönde etkilediği bulunmuştur. Aynı zamanda, akademik ve yönetimsel ugulamalar tartışılmıştır.

Kaynakça

Abuhamdeh, S. and Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2012). The importance of challenge for the enjoyment of intrinsically motivated, goal-directed activities. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38(3): 317-330.

Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. New Jersey: Prentice-hall. Bloch, P. H. (1984). The wellness movement: imperatives for healthcare marketers. Journal of Health Care Marketing, 4(1): 9-16.

Cho, J., Lee, H. E. and Quinlan, M. (2017). Cross-national comparisons of college students’ attitudes toward diet/fitness apps on smartphones. Journal of American College Health, 65(7): 437-449.

Cho, J., Lee, H. E., Kim, S. J. and Park, D. (2015). Effects of body image on college students’ attitudes toward diet/fitness apps on smartphones. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 18(1): 41-45.

Choe, E. K., Lee, N. B., Lee, B., Pratt, W. and Kientz, J. A. (2014). Understanding quantified-selfers’ practices in collecting and exploring personal data. 32nd annual ACM conference on Human factors in computing systems, Toronto, April 26-May 1.

Costa Jr, P. T., McCrae, R. R. and Dye, D. A. (1991). Facet scales for agreeableness and conscientiousness: A revision of the NEO Personality Inventory. Personality and Individual Differences, 12(9): 887-898.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1993). The evolving self: a psychology for the third millennium. New York: HarperPerennial.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1997). Finding Flow: The psychology of engagement with everyday life. New York: BasicBooks.

Davis, F. D., Bagozzi, R. P. and Warshaw, P. R. (1992). Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation to use computers in the workplace. Journal of applied social psychology, 22(14): 1111-1132.

Deci, E. L. (1975). Intrinsic Motivation. New York: Plenum Press.

Deci, E. L. Koestner, R. and Ryan, R. M. (1999). A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 125(6): 627.

Deci, E. L. and Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum.

Egede, L. E. and Ellis, C. (2008). Development and testing of the multidimensional trust in health care systems scale. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 23(6): 808.

Fishbein, M. and Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley. Gfk (2017), Tech Trends 2017 (Nurnberg).

Gimpel, H., Nißen, M. and Görlitz, R. (2013). Quantifying the quantified self: A study on the motivations of patients to track their own health, 34th International Conference on Information Systems, Milano, December 15-18.

Gould, S. J. (1988). Consumer attitudes toward health and healthcare: A differential perspective, The Journal of Consumer Affairs, 22(1): 96-118.

Hair, J.F., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J., Anderson, R.E. and Tathan, R.L. (2005). Multivariate data analysis. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Upper.

Hong, H. (2009). Scale development for measuring health consciousness: Reconceptualization. 12th Annual International Public Relations Research Conference, Miami, March 11-15.

Kagermann, H. (2015). Change through digitization—Value creation in the age of Industry 4.0. in Albach, H., Meffert, H., Pinkwart, A. and Reicwald, R. Management of permanent change. Wiesbaden: Springer Gabler.

Kraft, F. B. and Goodell, P. W. (1993). Identifying the health conscious consumer. Marketing Health Services, 13(3), 18.

Lee, H. E. and Cho, J. (2017). What motivates users to continue using diet and fitness apps? Application of the uses and gratifications approach. Health Communication, 32(12): 1445-1453.

Li, I., Dey, A. and Forlizzi, J. (2010). A stage-based model of personal informatics systems. SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Atlanta, April 10-15.

Lister, C., West, J. H., Cannon, B., Sax, T. and Brodegard, D. (2014). Just a fad? Gamification in health and fitness apps. JMIR Serious Games, 2(2).

Lupton, D. (2014). Self-tracking modes: Reflexive self-monitoring and data practices. The ‘Imminent Citizenships: Personhood and Identity Politics in the Informatic Age’ workshop, Canberra, 27 August.

Malone, T. W. (1981). Toward a theory of intrinsically motivating instruction.Cognitive science, 5(4): 333-369.

Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4): 370-396.

Miner, J. (2005). Organizational behavior: Essential Theories Of Motivation And Leadership. New York: M.E. Sharpe.

Payne, H. E., Moxley, V. B. and MacDonald, E. (2015). Health behavior theory in physical activity game apps: A content analysis. JMIR Serious Games, 3(2).

Pfeiffer, J., von Entress-Fuersteneck, M., Urbach, N. and Buchwald, A. (2016). Quantify-me: Consumer Acceptance of Wearable Self-tracking Devices, 24th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Istanbul, June 12-15.

Pindter-Medina, J. (2015). mHealth and Web Applications. in Eren, H. and Webster, J. G., The E-Medicine, E-Health, M-Health, Telemedicine, and Telehealth Handbook. Volume II: Telehealth And Mobile Health, Florida: Taylor and Francis Group.

Pine, B. J. and Gilmore, J. H. (1998). Welcome to the experience economy. Harvard Business Review, 76: 97-105.

Ryan, R. M. and Deci, E. L. (2002). Overview of self-determination theory: An organismic dialectical perspective. in Deci, E. L. and Ryan, R. M., Handbook of self-determination research, New York: University of Rochester Press.

Schmitt, B. (1999). Experiential Marketing. Journal of Marketing Management, 15(1): 53-67.

Shin, D. H. and Biocca, F. (2017). Health experience model of personal informatics: The case of a quantified self. Computers in Human Behavior, 69: 62-74.

Snyder, C. R. and Fromkin, H. L. (1977). Abnormality as a positive characteristic: The development and validation of a scale measuring need for uniqueness. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 86(5): 518.

Tabacchi, M. H. (1987). Targeting the health-conscious consumer. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 28(3): 21-24.

Tangney, J. P., Baumeister, R. F. and Boone, A. L. (2004). High self-control predicts good adjustment, less pathology, better grades, and interpersonal success. Journal of Personality, 72(2): 271-324.

The Economist (2012), The quantified self, counting every moment: Technology and health: Measuring your everyday activities can help improve your quality of life, according to aficionados of “self-tracking” (London).

Vallerand, R. J. (1997). Toward a hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Advances in experimental social psychology, 29: 271-360.

Vallerand, R. J. and Ratelle, C. F. (2002). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: A hierarchical model. in Deci, E. L. and Ryan, R. M., Handbook of selfdetermination research, New York: University of Rochester Press.

Venkatesh, V. (1999). Creation of favorable user perceptions: exploring the role of intrinsic motivation. MIS Quarterly, 239-260.

Venkatesh, V. and Davis, F. D. (2000). A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model: Four longitudinal field studies. Management Science, 46(2): 186-204.

Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G. Davis, G. B. and Davis, F. D. (2003). User acceptance of information technology: Toward a unified view. MIS Quarterly, 425-478.

Venkatesh, V., Speier, C. and Morris, M. G. (2002). User acceptance enablers in individual decision making about technology: Toward an integrated model. Decision Sciences, 33(2): 297-316.

Venkatesh, V., Thong, J. Y. and Xu, X. (2012). Consumer acceptance and use of information technology: extending the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology. MIS Quarterly, 157-178.

Yuan, S., Ma, W., Kanthawala, S. and Peng, W. (2015). Keep using my health apps: Discover users’ perception of health and fitness apps with the UTAUT2 model. Telemedicine and e-Health, 21(9): 735-741.

Kaynak Göster