HİZMET KALİTESİ, FİRMA İMAJI VE DEĞİŞTİRME MALİYETLERİNİN MÜŞTERİ SADAKATİNE ETKİSİ: ALTERNATİFLERİN ÇEKİCİLİĞİNİN DÜZENLEYİCİ ROLÜ

İnternetin günlük hayatımızdaki öneminin gün geçtikçe artması, abone sayılarının çok hızlı bir şekilde büyümesine neden olmuştur. Bu durum, İnternet servis sağlayıcı firmalar arasındaki rekabetin şiddetinin artmasını beraberinde getirmiştir. Şiddetli rekabet, sektörde müşteri sadakati sağlayacak değişkenlerin ortaya çıkartılmasını gerekli kılmıştır. Bu çalışmanın amacı, İnternet Servis Sağlayıcıları (ISS) sektöründe hizmet kalitesi, firma imajı ve değiştirme maliyetlerinin sadakate etkilerini ortaya koymaktır. Ayrıca çalışmada, hizmet sektörü açısından önemli bir değişken olan alternatiflerin çekiciliğinin de bu etkiler üzerindeki düzenleyici rolü belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Bu kapsamda, oluşturulan anketler 318 kişiye uygulanmış ve araştırma kapsamında belirlenen hipotezler yapısal eşitlik modeli ile test edilmiştir. Ayrıca düzenleyici etki hipotezlerini test etmek amacıyla hiyerarşik regresyon ve basit eğim analizi kullanılmıştır. Analiz sonuçlarına göre, firma imajı, hizmet kalitesi, değiştirme maliyeti değişkenlerinin müşteri sadakati üzerinde pozitif etkisinin olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca alternatiflerin çekiciliğinin söz konusu etkiler üzerinde düzenleyici etkiye sahip olduğu belirlenmiştir.

THE EFFECT OF SERVICE QUALITY, CORPORATE IMAGE AND SWITCHING COSTS ON CUSTOMER LOYALTY: MODERATION ROLE OF ALTERNATIVES’ ATTRACTIVENESS

The increasing importance of the Internet in our daily lives has caused the number of subscribers to grow very rapidly. This has led to an increase in the intensity of competition among Internet service providers. Severe competition necessitated the discovery of variables that would provide loyalty in the sector. This study aims to reveal the effects of service quality, corporate image, and switching costs on customer loyalty in the Internet Service Providers (ISP) sector. Also, we explored the moderation role of the attractiveness of the alternatives, which is an important variable in the service sector. Within this scope, questionnaires were devised and applied to 318 people, and the hypotheses were tested using the structural equation model. Also, hierarchical regression and simple slope analysis to test moderation impact hypotheses. According to the results of the analysis, it is found that company image, quality of service, cost of change positively affect customer loyalty. It has also been determined that the attractiveness of the alternatives has a regulatory effect on these effects.

Kaynakça

Aiken, L. S. ve West, S. G. (1991). Multiple Regression: Testing And Interpreting Interactions, Newbury Park CA: SAGE.

Anderson, C.R. ve Zeithaml, C.P. (1984). Stage of the Product Life Cycle, Business Strategy, and Business Performance. The Academy of Management Journal, 27(1), 5-24.

Andreassen, T.W. ve Lindestad, B. (1998). Customer Loyalty And Complex Services: The Impact of Corporate Image on Quality, Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty for Customers with Varying Degrees of Service Expertise. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 9(1), 7–23.

Alwi, S. F. ve Da Silva, R.V. (2007). Online and Offline Corporate Brand Images: Do They Differ? Corporate Reputation Review, 10(4), 217-244.

Aydın, S., Özcan, M. ve Yücel, R. (2007). Türk GSM Sektöründe Abonelerin Sadakat Tutumu ve Değiştirme Maliyetinin Rolü. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 11(12), 219-234.

Bhattacharya, A. (2013). Switching Costs and Sustained Competitive Advantege. International Journal of Business and Management Invention, 2, 101-111.

Bloemer, J., Ruyter, K. ve Wetzels, M. (1998). On the Relationship Between Perceived Service Quality, Service Loyalty and Switching Costs. International Journal of Industry Management, 9(5), 436-53.

Boulding, W., Kalra, A., Staelin, R. ve Zeithaml, V. A. (1993). A Dynamic Process Model of Service Quality: From Expectations to Behavioral Intentions. Journal of Marketing Research, 30(1), 7-27.

Burnham, T. A., Frels, J. K. ve Mahajan, V. (2003). Consumer Switching Costs: A Typology, Antecedents, and Consequences. Journal of Academy of Marketing Science, 31(2), 109–126.

Calvo – Porral, C. ve Levy – Mangin J.P. (2015). Switching Behavior and Customer Satisfaction in Mobile Services: Analyzing Virtual and Traditional Operators. Computers in Human Behavior, 49, 532–540.

Calvo - Porral, C. C., Medin, A. F. ve Mengotti, M. N. (2017). Satisfaction and Switching Intention in Mobile Services: Comparing Lock-in and Free Contracts in the Spanish Market. Telematics and Informatics, 34(5), 717- 729.

Chaplin, W. F. (1991). The Next Generation of Moderator Research in Personality Psychology. Journal of Personality, 59(2), 143–178.

Chuah, S. H. W., Marimuthu, M., Kandampully J. ve Bilgihan, A. (2017). What Drives Gen Y Loyalty? Understanding the Mediated Moderating Roles of Switching Costs and Alternative Attractiveness in the Value Satisfaction-Loyalty Chain. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 36,124-136.

Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G. ve Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied Multiple Regression / Correlation Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences (3. Baskı), Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Cöner, A. ve Güngör, M.O. (2002). Factors Affecting Customer Loyalty in the Competitive Turkish Metropolitan Retail Markets. Journal of American Academy of Business, 2(1), 189–195

Faullant, R., Matzler, K. ve Füller, J. (2008). The Impact of Satisfaction and Image on Loyalty: The Case of Alpine Ski Resorts. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, 18(2), 163–178

Fredericks, J.O. ve Salter, J.M. II (1995). Beyond Customer Satisfaction. Management Review, May, 29-32.

Geyik S. (2015). Üniversite Öğrencilerinin Internet Servis Sağlayıcı Tercihlerini Etkileyen Faktörler Üzerine Bir Araştırma. İstanbul Üniversitesi İktisat Fakültesi Ekonometri ve İstatistik Dergisi, Ekonometri ve İstatistik, Sayı:22.14-35.

Geyik, S. ve Gökçen, A. (2014). Türkiye’de Internet Servis Sağlayıcıları Sektöründe Müşteri Sadakati ve Bileşenlerinin Yapısal Eşitlik Modellemesi ile Incelenmesi. Marmara Üniversitesi İ.İ.B.F Dergisi, 36(2), 159-184.

Ghazali, E., Nguyen, B., Mutum, D.S. ve Mohd-Any, A. A. (2016). Constructing Online Switching Barriers: Examining The Effects of Switching Cost and Alternatives Attractiveness on E-Store Loyalty on E-Storeloyalty in Online Pure-Play Retailers. Journal of Electronic Marketing, 26(2), 157-171.

Giovanisa, A.N., Zondirosb D. ve Tomarasc P. (2014). The Antecedents of Customer Loyalty for Broadband Services: The Role of Service Quality, Emotional Satisfaction and Corporate Image. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 148, 236 – 244

Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L. ve Black, W. C. (1995). Multivariate Data Analysis With Readings (4. Baskı). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J. ve Anderson, R. E. (2009). Multivariate Data Analysis. Pearson Education.

Han, H. ve Hyun, S.S. (2018). Investigating Customers’ Shopping Behaviors at Airport Duty-Free Shops: Impact of Shopping Flow and Alternative Shopping Malls’ Attractiveness. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 23(7), 627-638

Hermes N., Kihanga E., Lensink, R. ve Lutz, C. (2012) The Impact of Trade Credit on Customer Switching Behaviour: Evidence from the Tanzanian Rice Market, Journal of Development Studies, 48 (3), 363-376,

Hoe, S.L. (2008). Issues and Procedures in Adopting Structural Equation Modeling Technique, Journal of Applied Quantitative Methods, 3(1), 76-83.

Hong, S.-C. ve Goo, Y.J.J. (2004). A Causal Model of Customer Loyalty in Professional Service Firms: An Empirical Study. International Journal of Management, 21(4), 531.

Johnson, M.D., Gustafsson, A., Andreassen, T.W., Lervik, L. ve Cha, J. (2001). The Evolution and Future of National Customer Satisfaction Index Models. Journal of Economic Psychology, 22(2), 217–245.

Jones, O. ve Sasser W.E. (1995). Why Satisfied Customers Defect. Harvard Business Review, 73, 88-99.

Jones, M., Mothersbaugh, D. ve Beatty, S. (2000). Switching Barriers and Repurchase Intentions in Services. Journal of Retailing, 76(2), 259–274.

Juhl, H.J., Kristensen, K. ve Ostergaard, P. (2002). Consumer Satisfaction in European Food Retailing. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 9(6), 327-34.

Kim, M.K., Park, M.C. ve Jeong, D.H. (2004). The Effects of Customer Satisfaction and Switching Barrier on Customer Loyalty in Korean Mobile Telecommunication Services. Telecommunications Policy, 28, 145–159.

Kim, K.J., Jeung, I.J., Cheol-Park, J., Park, Y.J. , Kim, C.G. ve Kim, T.H. (2007). The Impact of Network Service Performance on Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty: High-Speed Internet Service Case in Korea. Expert Systems with Applications, 32(3), 822–831.

Kristensen, K., Gronholdt, L. ve Martensen, A. (2000). Customer Satisfaction Measurement at Post Denmark: Results of Application of The European Customer Satisfaction Index Methodology. Total Quality Management, 11(7), 1007-15.

Kuo, Y. F., Wu, C. M. ve Deng, W. J., (2009). The Relationships Among Service Quality, Perceived Value, Customer Satisfaction And Post-Purchase Intention in Mobile Value-Added Services. Computer Human Behavior, 25, 887–896.

Ladhari., R., Souiden, N. ve Ladhari, I. (2011). Determinants of Loyalty And Recommendation: the Role of Perceived Service Quality Emotional Satisfaction and Image. Journal of Financial Services Marketing, 16, 111- 124.

Lee, J., Lee, J. ve Feick, L. (2001). The Impact of Switching Costs on the Customer Satisfaction-Loyalty Link: Mobile Phone Service in France. Journal of Services Marketing, 15(1), 35-48.

Lin, H.-H. ve Wang, Y.-S. (2006). An Examination of the Determinants of Customer Loyalty in Mobile Commerce Contexts, Information & Management. 43(3), 271–282.

Liu, C.T., Guo, Y.M. ve Lee, C.H. (2011). The Effects of Relationship Quality and Switching Barriers on Customer Loyalty. International Journal of Information Management, 31,71–79

Marin, L. ve de Maya, S. R. (2013). The Role of Affiliation, Attractiveness and Personal Connection in Consumer-Company Identification. European Journal of Marketing, 47(3/4), 655–673.

Nguyen, N. ve LeBlanc, G. (1998). The Mediating Role of Corporate Image On Customers’ Retention Decisions: An Investigation in Financial Services. The International Journal of Bank Marketing, 16(2), 52–65.

Nguyen, N. ve Leblanc, G. (2001). Corporate Image and Corporate Reputation in Customers’ Retention Decisions in Services. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 8, 227-236.

Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric Theory. New York: Mc Graw-Hill.

Quach, S., Thaichon, P. ve Jebarajakirthy, C. (2016). Internet Service Providers Service Quality and Its Effect on Customer Loyalty of Different Usage Patterns. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 29, 104–113.

Özer, G. ve Aydın, S. (2004). GSM Sektöründe Müşteri Sadakati, Memnuniyeti, Değiştirme Maliyeti ve Güven Arasındaki İlişki. İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Dergisi , 8, 3-4.

Patterson, P.G. ve Smith, T., (2003). A Cross-Cultural of Switching Barriers and Propensity to Stay With Service Providers. Journal of Retailing, 79(2), 107–120.

Ping, R. A. (1993). The Effects of Satisfaction and Structural Constraints on Retailer Exiting, Voice, Loyalty, Opportunism and Neglect. Journal of Retailing, 69(Fall), 320-352 .

Robertson, T. S. ve Gatignon, H. (1986). Competitive Effects on Technology Diffusion. Journal of Marketing, 50(3), 1-12

Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H. ve Müller, H. (2003). Evaluating the Fit of Structural Equation Models: Tests of Significance and Descriptive Goodnessof- Fit Measures. Methods of Psychological Research, 8(2), 23-74.

Sharma, N. ve Patterson, P. (2000). Switching Costs, Alternative Attractiveness and Experience as Moderators of Relationship Commitment in Professional, Consumer Services. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 11(5), 470–490.

Shukla, P. (2010). Effects of Perceived Sacrifice Quality Value and Satisfaction on Behavioural Intentions in the Service Environment. Services Marketing Quarterly, 31, 466 – 484.

Stann, V., Caemmerer, B. ve Jallet, R. C. (2013). Customer Loyalty Development: The Role of Switching Costs. The Journal of Applied Business Research, 29(5), 1541-1555.

Selnes, F. (1993). An Examination of the Effect of Product Performance on Brand Reputation, Satisfaction and Loyalty. European Journal of Marketing, 27(9), 19–35.

Szwarc, P. (2005). Researching Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty: How to Find Out what People Really Think. Kogan Page: London.

Şimşek, Ö. F. (2007). Yapısal Eşitlik Modellemesine Giriş. Ankara: Ekinoks Yayınları.

Tsai, H.-T. ve Huang, H.-C. (2007). Determinants of E-repurchase Intentions: An Integrative Model of Quadruple Retention Drivers. Information and Management, 44(3), 231–239.

Tsai, H.-T., Huang, H.-C., Jaw, Y.-L. ve Chen, W.-K. (2006). Why Online Customers Remain with a Particular E-retailer: An Integrative Model and Empirical Evidence. Psychology and Marketing, 23(5), 447– 464.

Türkiye Elektronik Haberleşme Sektörü 2018 Pazar Verileri Raporu, https://www. btk.gov.tr/uploads/pages/pazar-verileri/2018-2ceyrekraporu.pdf. Erişim tarihi: (05.07.2019)

Ural, T. ve Perk, H. G. (2011). Tüketici Temelli Marka Değerinin Kişisel Bilgisayar Satın Alma Niyeti Üzerine Etkisi: Antakya’da Bir Çalışma. Anadolu Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 12(3), 11-26.

Yang, Z. ve Peterson, R. T. (2004). Customer Perceived Value, Satisfaction, and Loyalty: The Role of Switching Costs. Psychology and Marketing, 21(10), 799–822.

Yoo, B., Donthu, N. ve Lee, S. (2000). An Examination of Selected Marketing Mix Elements and Brand Equity. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28(2), 195–211.

Zaibaf, M., Taherikia F. ve Fakharian M. (2013). Effect of Perceived Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction in Hospitality Industry: Gronroos’ Service Quality Model Development. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 22(5), 490-504.

Kaynak Göster