FORMAL AND INFORMAL COMPONENTS OF THE SERVICE RELATIONSHIP IN HEALTH CARE

In this study, the term “relationship” is decomposed into formal and informal components, which better reflects the nature of service interactions. This paper intends to compare if either/both of these components are utilized (more) during interactions. Survey data is collected from 193 respondents. Both service partners are included in the analyses, with the recognition that co-creation is possible only through the active participation of both partners involved. Results indicate that both patients and physicians utilize formal relationship behavior more, but they both increase the level of informality when the other service partner behaves positively. Patients and physicians can use these results to shape their interactive behavior so that mutually satisfactory outcomes are obtained.

SAĞLIK HİZMETLERİNDE HİZMET İLİŞKİSİNİN FORMEL VE ENFORMEL BİLEŞENLERİ

Bu çalışmada, “ilişki” kavramı, hizmet etkileşimlerinin daha iyi anlaşılmasını sağlamak üzere, formel ve enformel bileşenlerine ayrılmıştır. Amaç, bu bileşenlerden herhangi birinin veya ikisinin (daha fazla) kullanılıp kullanılmadığı konusunda karşılaştırma yapabilmektir. 193 katılımcıdan anket verisi toplanmıştır. Ortak değer yaratımının her iki partnerin de aktif katılımıyla mümkün olduğu yaklaşımıyla, çalışmaya hizmet ilişkisindeki her iki taraf da dâhil edilmiştir. Bulgulara göre hem hastalar hem hekimler daha fazla formel ilişki davranışında bulunmaktadır; ancak ister hasta, ister hekim olsun, karşı partner daha olumlu bir davranış içerisinde oldukça daha enformel davranmaktadır. Hekimler ve hastalar bu çalışmanın bulgularından faydalanarak karşılıklı tatmin eden bir hizmet çıktısı için etkileşim davranışlarını şekillendirebileceği düşünülmektedir.

Kaynakça

Abosag, I. and Naudé, P. (2014).“Development of special forms of B2B relationships: examining the role of interpersonal liking in developing Guanxi and Et-Moone relationships”, Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 43(6):887-896.

Arnold, S.L., Nguyen, D.T. and Hartley, N. (2011).Pro bono service sheds new light into commercial friendship, Journal of Strategic Marketing,Vol. 19, (4):381-394.

Arnould, E.J. and Price, L.L. (1993). River magic: extraordinary experience and the extended service encounter, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 20, (1):24-45.

Beetles, A. C. and Harris, L. C. (2010). The role of intimacy in service relationships: An exploration, Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 24, (5):347-358.

Berghäll, S. (2003). Perceptions of dyadic business relationships: in search of the social psychological basis of interpersonal relationship perceptions in socioeconomic exchange relationships, Marketing Theory, Vol. 3, (1):59-77.

Berry, L. L. (1983). Relationship Marketing, in Emerging Perspectives on Services Marketing, Eds. L. L. Berry, G. L. Shostack and G. Upah. Chicago, IL, American Marketing Association: 25-28.

Chan, K.W., Yim, C.K.B. and Lam, S.S.K. (2010). Is customer participation in value creation a double-edged sword?Evidence from professional financial services across cultures, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 74, (3):48-64.

Chao, P., Fu, H.P. and Lu, I.Y. (2007). Strengthening the quality–loyalty linkage: the role of customer orientation and interpersonal relationship, The Service Industries Journal, Vol.27, (4): 471–494.

Crosby, L.A., Evans, K.R. and Cowles, D. (1990) Relationship quality in services selling: an interpersonal influence perspective, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 54, (3): 68-81.

Crosby, L. A. and Stephens, N. (1987). Effects of relationship marketing on satisfaction, retention, and prices in the life insurance industry, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 24, (4): 404-411.

Deloitte (2019). 2019 Global HealthCare Outlook,https://www2.deloitte.com/ global/en/ pages/life-sciences-and-healthcare/articles/global-health-caresector- outlook.html, Accessed 04.07.2019.

Di Mascio, R. (2010). The service models of frontline employees, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 74, (4):63-80.

Elsharnouby, T. and Parsons, E. (2010). A broader concept of relationships: Identifying new forms of consumer–provider interactions in Egyptian financial services, Journal of Marketing Management, Vol. 26, (13/14):1367- 1388.

Folkes, V.S. and Patrick, V.M. (2003). The positivity effect in perceptions of services: seen one, seen them all? Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 30, (1):125-137.

Friedman, M.L. and Churchill, Jr. G.A. (1987). Using consumer perceptions and a contingency approach to improve health care delivery, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 13, (4):492-510.

Fung, C.H., Elliott, M.N., Hays, R.D., Kahn, K.L., Kanouse, D.E., McGlynn, E.A., Spranca, M.D. and Shekelle, P.G. (2005). Patients’ preferences for technical versus interpersonal quality when selecting a primary care physician, HSR: Health Services Research, Vol. 40, (4):957-977.

Garzaniti, I., Pearcer, G., Stanton, J. (2011). Building friendships and relationships: The role of conversation in hairdressing service encounters, Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, Vol. 21, (6):667 – 687.

Grayson, K. (2007). Friendship versus business in marketing relationships, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 71, (4):121-139.,

Grönroos, C. (2011). Value co-creation in service logic: a critical analysis, Marketing Theory, Vol. 11, (3):279-301.

He AJ, Qian J. (2016). Explaining medical disputes in Chinese public hospitals: the doctor–patient relationship and its implications for health policy reforms, HealthEconomics, Policy and Law, 11(4): 359-378.

Heide, J. B. and Wathne, K. H. (2006). Friends, businesspeople, and relationship roles: A conceptual framework and a research agenda, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 70, (3):90-103.

Hennig-Thurau, T., Groth, M., Paul, M. and Gremler, D.D. (2006). Are all smiles created equal? How emotional contagion and emotional labor affect service relationships, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 70, (3):58-73.

Ho, H. (Dixon) (2012). Does friendship help in personal selling? The contingent effect of outcome favorability, Psychology & Marketing, Vol. 29, (2):87-97.

Holloway, B. B., Wang, S., Beatty, S. E. (2009). Betrayal? Relationship quality implications in service recovery, Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 23, (6):385-396.

Jayanti, R. and Jackson, A. (1991). Service satisfaction: An exploratory investigation of three models, in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 18, Rebecca H. Holman and Michael R. Solomon, eds. Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research,603-610.

Johnson, B.R., Ross, W.T. and Coulter, R. (2011). Expressive oriented relationships: a new type of commercial friendships, Advances in Consumer Research, (39):757-758.

Jones, T., Taylor, S.F. and Bansal, H.S. (2008). Commitment to a friend, a service provider, or a service company—are they distinctions worth making? Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 36, (4):473-487.

Jordan, Z. and Court, A. (2010). “Reconstructing consumer participation in evidence-based health care: a polemic, International Journal of Consumer Studies, Vol. 34, (5):558-561.

Kemp, E., Jillapalli, R. and Becerra, E. (2014). “Healthcare branding: Developing emotionally based consumer brand relationships”, Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 28, (2):126-137.

Lee Y-Y, Lin JL. (2010). Do patient autonomy preferences matter? Linking patient-centered care to patient-physician relationships and health outcomes, Social Science & Medicine, 71: 1811–1818.

Lee, H. and Yang, K. (2013). Interpersonal service quality, self-service technology (SST) service quality, and retail patronage, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Vol. 20, (1):51-57.

Lin, J. C., Hsieh, C. (2011). Modeling service friendship and customer compliance in high-contact service relationships, Journal of Service Management, Vol. 22, (5):607 – 631.

Ma, Z. and Dubé, L. (2011). Process and outcome interdependency in frontline service encounters, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 75, (3):83-98.

Moorman, C., Zaltman, G. and Deshpande, R. (1992). Relationships between providers and users of market research: The dynamics of trust within and between organizations,Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 29, (8):314- 328.

Price, L.L. and Arnould, E.J. (1999). Commercial friendships: service providerclient relationships in context, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 63, (4):38-56.

Sekhon, H., Sanjit, R., Gurvinder, S. and Pritchard, A. (2013). Modelling trust in service relationships: A transnational perspective, Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 27, (1):76-86.

Shen, A. and Ball, A. D. (2009). Is personalization of services always a good thing? Exploring the role of technology-mediated personalization (TMP) in service relationships, Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 23, (2):80-92.

Solomon, M.R., Surprenant, C.F., Czepiel, J.A. and Gutman, E.G. (1985). A role theory perspective on dyadic interactions: the service encounter, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 49, (1):99-111.

Stevenson G. (1978). Social relations of production and consumption in the human service occupations, International Journal of Health Services, 8(3): 453-463.

Surprenant, C.F. and Solomon, M.R. (1987). Predictability and personalization in the service encounter, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 51, (2):86-96.

Tari Kasnakoglu, Berna (2016). Antecedents and consequences of co-creation in credence-based service contexts, Service Industries Journal,36(1/2): 1-20. TUIK (Turkish Statistical Institute), http://tuik.gov.tr, Accessed 04.07.2019.

Vargo, S.L. and Lusch, R.F. (2008). Service-dominant logic: continuing the evolution, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 36, (1):1-10.

Wan, L.C., Hui, M.K. and Wyer, R.S. (2011). The Role of relationship norms in responses to service failures, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 38, (2):260-277.

Wan, W.W.N, Luk, C.L., Fam, K.S., Wu, P. and Chow, C.W.C. (2012). Interpersonal relationship, service quality, seller expertise: how important are they to adolescent consumers? Psychology and Marketing, Vol. 29, (5):365-377.

Ward, T. and Dagger, T. S. (2007). The complexity of relationship marketing for service customers, Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 21, (4):281-290.

Wetherill, J. (1986). Regression Analysis with Applications, Chapman and Hall, New York, NY.

Williamson, Oliver E. 1996. The Mechanisms of Governance. New York: Oxford University Press.

Yim, C.K.B, Tse, D.K. and Chan, K.W. (2008). Strengthening customer loyalty through intimacy and passion: roles of customer–firm affection and customer–staff relationships in services, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 45, (6):741-756.

Zeithhaml, V. A., Berry, L. L. and Parasuraman, A. (1993). The nature and determinants of customer expectations of service, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 21, (1):1-12.

Kaynak Göster