John Lawrence Smith’in Osmanlı İmparatorluğundaki Mineraloji, Maden ve Jeokimya Araştırmalarına Katkıları

On dokuzuncu yüzyıl boyunca Osmanlı İmparatorluğu, endüstriyel kalkınma planlarının kapsamında, dünyanın farklı yerlerinden mühendis, bilim insanı ve uzmanları davet etmiştir. Bu uzmanlar arasında, az bilinenlerden biri John Lawrence Smith’tir (1818-1883). Dönemin aydınlanmacı ruhuna uygun şekilde, çok yönlü bir bilim insanı olarak yetişmiş olan John Lawrence Smith, Osmanlı İmparatorluğunda pamuk ziraatini geliştirmek amacıyla 1846 yılında Sultan Abdülmecid tarafından davet edilen uzmanlardan biridir. Buna karşın, bu alandan farklı olarak; mineraloji, madencilik, termal kaynaklar ve jeokimya alanlarında öncü çalışmalar yapmış efesit, liebigit ve mecidit isimlerini verdiği farklı mineral türlerini keşfetmiştir. Bunun yanı sıra farklı maden ve mineral yatakları keşfeden Smith, Batı Anadolu ve İsrail civarındaki termal kaynakları incelemiş, bu kaynaklardan aldığı örneklerin kimyasal analizlerini yapmıştır. İstanbul’da geçirdiği süre boyunca günümüzde Fişekhane olarak bilinen demir-çelik fabrikasında mineraloji ve metalurji dersleri veren Smith, 1850 yılında Osmanlı İmparatorluğundan ayrılmıştır.

John Lawrence Smith’s Contributions to Mineralogy, Mining, and Geochemical Research in the Ottoman Empire

Throughout the nineteenth century, the Ottoman Empire employed engineers, scientists, and experts from around the world as part of its industrial development policy. John Lawrence Smith (1818–1883) was one of these little-known experts. He was a versatile scientist educated with the Enlightenment philosophy of that period. In 1846, he was invited by Sultan Abdülmecid to improve cotton agriculture in the Ottoman Empire. He also conducted pioneering studies in mineralogy, mining, and geochemistry, as well as the investigation of thermal springs. As a mineralogist, he discovered ephesite, liebigite, and medjidite. Additionally, he discovered various mines and mineral deposits, performed pioneering studies in the thermal springs in western Anatolia and Israel, and subsequently conducted chemical analyses on samples he collected from such springs. During his stay in Istanbul, he taught mineralogy and metallurgy courses in the iron and steel factory known today as Fişekhane. Smith left the Ottoman Empire in 1850.

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Efesit minerali genel özellikleri. Erişim: 23 Mart 2021. https://www.mindat.org/min-1387.html

John Lawrence Smith'in Harvard Üniversitesi Mineralojik ve Jeolojik Müzesi'ne bağışladığı örnekler. Erişim: 14 Haziran 2021. http://minecat.rc.fas.harvard.edu/collections

John Lawrence Smith Madalyası. Erişim: 23 Mart 2021. https://american-miniatures2.blogspot.com/2007/07/ramsier-john-portrait-of-hon-james.html

John Lawrence Smith Fotoğrafı. Erişim: 23 Mart 2021. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._Lawrence_Smith#/media/File:John_Lawrence_Smith_by_Tony_Rogue,_1854.jpg

Margarit mineral ailesi için. Erişim: 23 Mart 2021. https://www.mindat.org/min-2573.html

Nachet firması tarafından üretilen ters mikroskop. Erişim: 23 Mart 2021. http://www.antique-microscopes.com/photos/Nachet_Chemical_Inverted_microscope.htm

Kaynak Göster

Chicago Göçmengil, G , Gülmez, F . "John Lawrence Smith’in Osmanlı İmparatorluğundaki Mineraloji, Maden ve Jeokimya Araştırmalarına Katkıları". Osmanlı Bilimi Araştırmaları 22 (2021 ): 219-239