Venetian Vagabonds and Furious Frenchmen: Nationalist and Cosmopolitan Impulses among Europeans in Galata

18. yüzyıl Galatası'ndaki yabancı diplomatlar Avrupalılıkları üzerinden kozmopolit bir cemaat kurmaya çalıştılar. Osmanlı başkentindeki alt tabakaya mensup Avrupalılarsa farklı milli menşelerden gelmeleri hasebiyle şiddet içeren çatışmalara pekâlâ girebilmekteydiler. 1729 yılında bir düğün sırasında vuku bulan böyle bir olayda iki Fransız aşçı Venediklilerin öfkesini üzerine çekti. Bu aşçılardan biri Venedikliler tarafından yaralanırken, diğer aşçı buna tepki olarak Venedikli bir berbere saldırdı, fakat saldırdığı kişi tarafından öldürüldü. Söz konusu yaralama ve cinayetin meydana gelmesi olaylara dahli olanların farklı milli kimliklerden gelmeleriyle doğrudan ilintiliydi. Venedikliler, Fransızlara sırf Fransız oldukları için saldırmışlardı; Fransızlar da Venediklilere sırf Venedikli oldukları için. İlginç olan şu ki, 18. yüzyılın başlarında Osmanlı İmparatorluğu'nda yaşayan alt tabakaya mensup Batı Avrupalılar için kendi milli kimlikleri üst tabakadakilere kıyasla çok daha önemliydi. Hizmetkârların milli menşeleri, kendi kimliklerini ve birbirleriyle kurdukları ilişkiyi tanımlamaktaydı. Buna mukabil diplomatların milli mensubiyetleri ise Galata'daki resmi statülerini belirlemekteydi. Yine de söz konusu diplomatlar yukarıda bahsedilen "Avrupalı cemaat" içinde uyumsuzlar ortaya çıktığında, uyumu yeniden tesis etmek için beraberce çaba gösteriyorlardı.

Venedikli Serseriler ve Öfkeli Fransızlar: Galata'da Yaşayan Avrupalıların Milliyetçi ve Kozmopolit Refleksleri

In eighteenth-century Galata, foreign diplomats sought to build a cosmopolitan community based on being Europeans within the Ottoman Empire. But among the lower orders national differences could ignite violent conflicts. In 1729 two French chefs provoked Venetian anger: one was injured by Venetians at a wedding; the second retaliated by attacking a Venetian barber, who then killed him. These events were predicated on national identity in the most literal fashion. Venetians were attacking French nationals simply for being French, and vice-versa. National identity, perhaps surprisingly, in certain respects meant more to the lowest social orders than it did to the highest among early-eighteenth-century western Europeans stationed in the Islamic Ottoman Empire. For the servants, national origins defined who they were and how they related to one another. For the diplomats, nation defined their official positions, yet they worked together to restore harmony

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