İşletme düzeyinde strateji paradokslarının mintzberg'in on stratejik yönetim okulu açısından değerlendirilmesi

Literatürde işletme düzeyinde stratejiler belirlenirken kaynaklardan mı yoksa pazardan mı hareket edilmesi gerektiği yönünde bir paradoksun bulunduğu tartışılmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın amacı, işletme düzeyi strateji belirlenirken karşı karşıya kalınan kaynaklar ya da pazarlar paradoksunu Mintzberg tarafından belirlenen on stratejik yönetim okulu çerçevesinde değerlendirmektir. Bu çerçevede bu okulların her birinin strateji belirlemeye ilişkin temel varsayımları dikkate alınarak, hangi strateji paradoksunun hangi stratejik yönetim okuluna daha yakın bir noktada durduğu belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Bu çalışma sonucunda günümüz paradigmasını kullanan Biçimleşme Okulunun, işletme düzeyinde strateji belirleme paradoksu açısından Tasarım Okulu ile aynı kategoride değerlendirilebileceği tespit edilmiştir. Göreli olarak eski planlama, çevre ve konumlandırma okullarının dışındaki diğer okulların ise kaynaklar yaklaşımına daha yakın olduğu tespiti ilgi çekici bir sonuç olarak değerlendirilebilir.

Evaluation of business level strategy paradoxes in terms of mintzberg's ten stra tegic mana gement schools

The paradox whether resources or markets should be the starting point while determining business level strategies has been discussed in the literature. This study aims at evaluating the "sources or markets paradox" while determining the business level strategy in terms of ten strategic management schools of Mintzberg. Within frames of schools' basic assumptions regarding strategy determination, it was attempted to determine which strategy paradox is compatible with the strategic management schools. As a result of this study, it was found out that Configuration School which uses today's paradigm can be assessed in the same category as Design School in terms of paradox of business level strategy determining. It might be considered as an interesting result that the rest of the schools are more in line with the markets perspective apart from relatively old schools of design, environment and positioning.

Kaynakça

[1] Chaffe, E.E. (1985). Three Models of Strategy. The Academy of Management Review, 10(1), 89-98.

[2] Whittington, R. (1993). What is Strategy and Does It Matter. London: Routledge.

[3] Mintzberg, H. & Ahlstrand, B, Lampel J. (1998). Strategy Safari. London: Prentice Hall.

[4] Barca, M. (2003). Economic Foundations of Strategic Management. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Limited.

[5] De Witt B. & Meyer, R. (1998). Strategy. London: International Thomson Publishing Company.

[6] Ülgen, H. & Mirze, K. (2004). Stratejik Yönetim. Istanbul: Literatür Yayıncılık.

[7] Beard, D.W. & Dess, G.G. (1981). Corporate Level Strategy, Business-Level Strategy and Firm Performance. Academy of Management Journal, 24(4), 663-688.

[8] RÜmelt, R.P. (1980). The Evaluation of Business Strategy. (Ed.: Glueck, W.F.). Strategic Management and Business Policy. New York: McGraw-Hill, 359-367.

[9] Porter, M.E. (1996). What is Strategy? Harvard Business Review, 74(6), 61-78.

[10] Day, G.S. (1994). The Capabilities of Market Driven Organizations. Journal of Marketing, 58(4), 37-52.

[11] Porter, M.E. (1985). Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance. NewYork: Free Press.

[12] Porter, M.E. (2000). Rekabet Stratejileri. (Çev: Ulubilgen, G.). Istanbul: Sistem Yayıncılık.

[13] Porter, M.E. (1991). Towards a Dynamic Theory of Strategy. Strategic Management Journal, 12(Special Issue: Fundamental Research Issues in Strategy and Economics), Winter, 95-117.

[14] Grant, R.M. (1991). The Resource Based Theory of Competitive, Advantage: Implications for Strategy Formulation. California Management Review, 33(3), 114-135.

[15] Barney, J. (1991). Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1), 99-120.

[16] Hamel, G. & Prahalad, C.K. (1996). Geleceği Kazanmak: Yarının Pazarlarını ve Endüstrinin Kontrolünü Yakalamak için Keşfedilen Stratejiler. (Çev.: Dicleli, Z.). Ankara: İnkılap Kitabevi.

[17] Stalk, G.; Evans, P. & Shulman, L. (1992). Competing on Capabilities: The New Rules Corporate Strategy. Harvard Business Review, 70(2), 57-69.

[18] Rumelt, R.; Schendel, D. & Teece, D. (1991). Strategic Management and Economics. Strategic Management Journal, 12(Special Issue: Fundamental Research Issues in Strategy and Economics), Winter, 5-29.

[19] De Witt, B. (2005). Strategy Syntehesis: Resolving Strategy, Paradoxes to Create Competitive. London: Thomson.

[20] Bakoğlu, R. (2003). Kaynak Bazlı Firma Teorisi Kapsamında Değişen Rekabet Kavram ve Anlayışı. İstanbul Üniversitesi İşletme Fakültesi Dergisi, 32(1), 65-76.

[21] Baraldi, E.; Brennan, R.; Harrison, D.; Tunisini, A. & Zolkiewski, J. (2007). Strategic Thinking and IMP Approach: A Comparative Analysis. Industrial Marketing Management, 36(7), 879-894.

[22] Sarvan, F.; Arıcı, E.D.; Özen, J.; Özdemir, B. & İçigen, E.T. (2003). On Stratejik Yönetim Okulu: Biçimleşme Okulunun Bütünleştirici Çerçevesi. Akdeniz İ.İ.B.F. Dergisi, 3(6), 73-122.

[23] Selznick, P. (1957). Leadership in Administration: A Sociological Interpretation. Evanston: (IL: Row, Peterson).

[24] Chandler, A.D. (1962). Strtaegy and Structuıre:Chapters in The History of the Industrial Enterprise. Cambridge: MA: MIT Press.

[25] Andrews, K.R. (1981). Replaying the Board's Role in Formulating Strategy. Harvard Business Review, 59(3), May-June, 18-27.

[26] Dinçer, Ö. (1998). Stratejik Yönetim ve İşletme Politikası. İstanbul: Beta Basım.

[27] Weigl, T. (2008). Strategy, Structure and Performance in a Transition Economy. Wiesbaden: DIJV.

[28] Mintzberg, H. (1994). The Fall and Rise of Strategic Planning. Harvard Business Review, 72(1), 107-114.

[29] Mintzberg, H. (1978). Patterns in Strategy Formation. Management Science, 24(9), 934-948.

[30] Ansoff, H.I. (1965). Corporate Strategy. NewYork: McGraw Hill.

[31] Eren, E. (2005). Stratejik Yönetim ve İşletme Politikası. İstanbul: Beta Basım Yayım.

[32] Kazmi, A. (2008). Strategic Management and Business Policy. New Delhi: Mc Graw Hill.

[33] Barca, M. (2005). Stratejik Yönetim Düşüncesinin Evrimi: Bilimsel Bir Disiplinin Oluşum Hikâyesi. Yönetim Araştırmaları Dergisi, 5(1), 7-38.

[34] Scott, B.R. (1971) Stages of Corporate Development. Cambridge: MA: Intercase Clearing House, Harvard Business School.

[35] Hatten, K.J. & Schendel, D.E. (1977). Heterogeneity within an Industry: Firm Conduct in the US Brewing Industry, 1952-1971. Journal of Industrial Economics, 26(2), 97-113.

[36] O'Connor, M.K. & Netting, F.E. (2009). Organization Practice. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

[37] Schumpeter, A. (1934). The Theory of Economic Development. Oxford:: Oxford University Press.

[38] Cole, A.H. (1959). Business Enerprise in its Social Setting. Cambridge: MA: MIT Press.

[39] Sadler, P. (2003). Strategic Management. Oxford: Kogan Page Limited.

[40] Royer, S. (2005). Strategic Management and Online Selling. London: Routledge.

[41] Simon, H. (1947). Administrative Behaviour. NewYork: Mscmillan.

[42] March, J.G. & Simon, H.A. (1958). Organizations. NewYork: John Wiley.

[43] Lindblom, C.E. (1959). The Science of Muddling Through. Public Administration Review, 19(2), 79-88.

[44] Bower, J.L. (1970). Managing the Resource Allocation Process: A Study of Planning and Investment. Boston: Graduate school of Business Administration, Harvard University.

[45] Burgelman, R.A. (1983). A Model Of The Interaction of Strategic Behaviour, Corporate Context, and the Concept of Strategy. Academy of Management Review, 8(1), 61-70.

[46] Weick, K.E. (1995). Sensemaking in Organizations. California: Sage Publications.

[47] Willauer, B. (2005). Consensus As Key Success Factor in Strategy Making. Wiesbaden: DUY.

[48] Astley, W.G. & Fombrun, C.J. (1983). Collective Strategy: The Social Ecology of Organizational Environments. Academy of Management Review, 8(4), 576-587.

[49] Allison, G.T. (1971). Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Misille Crisis. Boston: Little, Brown.

[50] Pfeffer, J. & Salancik, G.R. (1978). The External Control of Organizations: A Resource Dependence Perspective. NewYork: Harper & Row.

[51] Bower. L. & Doz, Y. (1979). Strategy Formulation: A Social and Political Process. (Eds.: Schendel, D.E. & Hofer, C.W.). Strategic Management. Boston: MA: Little Brown.

[52] Rehman, E. (1973). Organization Theory for Long Range Planning. London: John Wiley.

[53] Edwards, J. (1977). Strategy Formulation as a Stylistic Process. International Studies of Management and Organizations,!(2), 13-27.

[54] Norman, R. (1977). Management for Growth. New York: Wiley.

[55] Barney, J. (1986). Organizational Culture: Can It Be a Source of Sustained Competitive Advantage? Academy of Management Review, 11 (3), 656-665.

[56] Burns T. & Stalker, G. (1961). The Management of Innovation. London: Tavistock.

[57] Lawrence, P. & Lorsch, J. (1967). Differentiation and Integration in Complex Organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 12(1), 1-47.

[58] Hannan M.T. & Freeman, J.H. (1977). The Population Ecology of Organizations. American Journal of Sociology, 82(5), 929-964.

[59] Pugh, D.S.; Hickson, D.J.; Hinnings C,R.; Mac Donald, K.M.; Turner, C. & Lupton, T. (1963). A Conceptual Scheme for Organizational Analysis. Administrative Science Quarterly, 8(3), 289-315.

[60] Miles, R.E. & Snow, C.C. (1978). Organization Strategy, Structure and Process. NewYork: McGraw-Hill.

[61] Mintzberg, H. (1983). Power in and Around Organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

[62] Miller, D. (1996). Configurations Revisited. Strategic Management Journal, 17(7), 505-512.

Kaynak Göster