Fractal Analysis and the Urban Morphology of a City in a Developing Country: A Case Study of Istanbul

Şehirler sosyal, ekonomik ve teknolojik faktörlerin ve fiziki çevre şartlarının sonucunda ortaya çıkan karmaşık oluşumlardır. Şehirlerin gelişimlerini etkileyen unsurları anlamak onların sadece tarihteki değil gelecekteki gelişmelerini de anlamaya yardımcı olabilir. Fraktal analiz, şehir morfolojisi ve yapısının incelenmesinde yeni bir teknik olarak ortaya çıkmıştır. Bu çalışmada Fraktal analiz orta düzeyde gelir seviyesine sahip gelişmekte olan bir ülkedeki bir şehre örnek olarak İstanbul üzerinde uygulanmıştır. Çalışmada fraktal analiz sonucunda ortaya çıktığı üzere, İstanbul’un şehir yapısı Avrupa ve ABD’nin New York ve London gibi büyük şehirlerindeki yapı ile benzer özellikler taşımaktadır. Bununla birlikte, İstanbul’da görülen gelişme yoğunluğu, gelişmekte olan ülkelerdeki diğer kentsel alanların bir göstergesi olabilecek şekilde, gelişmiş bölgelerdeki benzer şehirlerden daha fazladır. Fraktal dokusunun ölçümüne dayalı (laucunarity ölçümü) yapılan ayrıntılı analizlerin şehir yapısının incelenmesinde daha iyi sonuçlar verdiği görülmektedir. Sonuçta, politik, kültürel yada ekonomik farklılıklara rağmen teknolojinin küreselleşmesi nedeniyle şehir dokularında giderek artan bir şekilde benzerlikler ortaya çıktığı görülmüştür.

Gelişmekte Olan Bir Ülkedeki Bir Şehrin Kent Morfolojisi ve Fractal Analizi: Örnek Alan Çalışması Olarak İstanbul

Cities are complex entities which are the result of social, economic, and technological agents and the physical environment. Understanding the elements influencing the development of cities can assist in understanding not only their historical, but also their future development. The use of fractal analysis is proving to be an innovative technique to study urban morphology and urban form/structure. In this paper, the fractal analysis is applied to Istanbul, as an example of a city in middle income developing country. This study found that the fractal dimension measurements of Istanbul indicate that its overall or global urban structure is similar to major cities in Europe and the United States, such as New York and London. However, the intensity of the development (or fractal dimension) in Istanbul is higher than comparable cities in developed regions, which may be indicative of other urbanized areas in developing countries. The addition of the lacunarity measurement (the measurement of a fractal’s texture) would seem to give greater clarity when examining urban fractals. Overall, it appears that due to the globalization of technology that urban structure is making urban structure increasingly similar regardless of the political, cultural or economic climate.

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