Madde Kullanımının ve Bağımlılığının Sosyoekonomik Maliyetinin ve Suç İle İlişkisinin Değerlendirilmesi

Dünya’da son yıllarda artan bir madde kullanım eğilimi kaydedilmektedir. Birçok toplum için madde kullanımı ve bağımlılığı sosyoekonomik maliyeti azımsanamayacak düzeyde önemli bir biyopsikososyal problem olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Sosyo-ekonomik maliyeti açısından madde kullanımının ve bağımlılığının değerlendirilmesi ve suç ile ilişkisinin ortaya konması özellikle sağlık, madde, ekonomi ve sosyal politikalarının oluşturulmasında büyük bir önem taşımaktadır. Suç madde kullanımının ve bağımlılığının sosyoekonomik maliyeti kapsamında değerlendirilmektedir. Madde kullanımı, bağımlılığı ve suç arasındaki ilişki ise sürekli tartışılan bir konudur. Literatürde madde kullanımı ve suç ilişkisini açıklayan farklı modeller geliştirilmiştir. Bu çalışmada madde kullanımı ve bağımlılığı sosyoekonomik maliyet açısından ele alınmış ve suç ile ilişkisi madde-suç ilişkisi üzerine yapılan teorik ve ampirik çalışmalar çerçevesinde değerlendirilmiştir. Bu çalışmada madde kullanımı ve bağımlılığı ile ilişkili olarak toplumların uzun süreli maliyetler ile yüzleştikleri ve madde ve suç arasındaki ilişkinin tek bir modelle açıklanamayacağı sonucuna varılmıştır.

Assessment Of The Socioeconomic Cost Of Drug Use And Addiction And Its Relationship With Crime

In recent years, an increasing trend of drug use has been recorded in the world. According to many societies, drug use and addiction are defined as an important biopsychosocial problem that socio-economic cost cannot be underestimated. In terms of its socio-economic costs, assessment of drug use and addiction and revealing its relationship with crime are crucial especially in the formulation of health, drug, economy and social policies. Crime is considered within the scope of the socio-economic cost of drug use and addiction. The relationship between drug use, addiction and crime is a controversial issue. Different models have been developed in the literature to explain the relationship between drug and crime. In this study, drug use and addiction were discussed in terms of socio-economic costs and its relationship with crime was evaluated within the framework of theoretical and empirical studies on drug-crime relationships. In this study, it was concluded that societies face long-term costs related to drug use and addiction and the relationship between drug and crime could not be explained by a single model.

Kaynakça

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ALPAY, N., KARAMUSTAFAOĞLU, N., KÜKÜRT, R. (1995), “Madde Bağımlılarında Suç”, Düşünen Adam, 8(2), s.16-17.

ALTUNER, D., ENGİN, N., GÜRER, C., AKYAY, İ., Ve AKGÜL A. (2009), “Madde Kullanımı ve Suç İlişkisi: Kesitsel Bir Araştırma”, Tıp Araştırmaları Dergisi, 7 (2), s.87 -94.

ANGLIN, M., D., ve PERROCHET, B. (1998), “Drug Use And Crime: A Historical Review Of Research Conducted By The UCLA Drug Abuse Research Center”, Substance Use & Misuse, 33(9), pp.1871-1914.

BENNETT, T. (1998), “Drugs And Crime: The Results Of Research On Drug Testing And İnterviewing Arrestees”, A Research and Statistics Directorate Report, Home Office Research Study No. 183, Home Office, London.

BENNETT, T., HOLLOWAY, K., FARRİNGTON, D. (2008), “The Statistic Alassociation Between Drug Misuse And Crime: A Meta-Analysis”, Aggression And Violent Behavior, 13(2), pp.107-118.

BENNETT, T., H., ve HOLLOWAY, K. (2009), “The Causal Connection Between Drug Misuse and Crime”, British Journal of Criminology,49(4), pp.513-531.

BOWSER, B., P., WORD, C., O., SEDDON, T. (2014). Understanding Drug Use and Abuse: A Global Perspective, First Edition, Palgra ve Macmillan, England.

BİLİCİ, R., UĞURLU, K., G., TUFAN, E., GÜVEN, T., UĞURLU, M. (2012), “Bir Bağımlılık Merkezinde Yatarak Tedavi Gören Hastaların Sosyodemografik Özelllikleri”, Fırat Tıp Dergisi, 17(4), s.223-227.

BJS (1988), Drugs and Crime Facts, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, ( https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/dcf88.pdf ) ( 05/10/2017 ).

BJS (1994), Fact Sheet: Drug-Related Crime, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, (https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/DRRC.PDF) (05/10/2017).

BUSHMAN, B., J. (1996), “Individual Differences In The Extent And Development Of Aggressive Cognitive-Associative Networks”, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22(8), pp.811–819.

CARTWRIGHT, W., S. (1999), “Costs Of Drug Abuse To Society”, The Journal Of Mental Health Policy And Economics, Vol. 2, pp.133–134.

CAVAN, S., (2000), Recovery From Drug Addiction, First Eddition, The Rosen Publishing Group Inc., New York.

CHAIKEN, J., M., Ve CHAIKEN, M., R. (1990), “Drugs and Predatory Crime”, Drugs and Crime, Crime and Justice Vol. 13, pp. 203-239.

CHEIN, I. (1980), Psychological, Social, And Epidemiological Factors İn Juvenile Drug Use, Eds. Dan J. Lettieri, Mollie Sayers, Helen Wallenstein Pearson, Theories On Drug Abuse Selected Contemporary Perspectives (pp. 76-83), U.S. Department of Health and Human Servises, NIDA Research Monograph 30. METROTEC, Maryland(https://archives.drugabuse.gov/sites/default/files/monograph30.pdf) (20/10/2018).

ÇİFCİ, G., E. (2017), Suçun Yolculuğu: Yaşanmış Olaylardan Öyküler, Birinci Basım, Ürün Yayınları, Ankara.

ÇÖPÜR, M., ERYILMAZ, A., ÇAKMAK, D., (2014), “Alkol, Madde Kullanımı ve Yasal Sorunlar”, Okmeydanı Tıp Dergisi, S.30 (Ek sayı 2), s.84-88.

DEITCH, D., KOUTSENOK, I., RUİZ, A.(2000),“The Relationship Between Crime and Drugs: What We Have Learned in Recent Decades”, Relationship Between Crime and Drugs, Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 32(4), pp.391-397.

EDELFIELD, B., MOOSA, J., T. (2012). Drug Abuse. 1st. Ed. The Rosen Publishing Group Inc., New York.

EMCDDA (2007). Avrupa’daki Uyuşturucu Sorununun Durumu. Avrupa Uyuşturucu ve Uyuşturucu Bağımlılığı İzleme Merkezi, Avrupa Toplulukları Resmi Yayınlar Bürosu. 2007 Yılık Raporu, Lüksemburg. ( http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/system/files/publications/446/TDAC07001TRC_84785.pdf ) (12/02/2018)

EMCDDA (2017). Avrupa Uyuşturucu Raporu: Trendler ve Gelişmeler. Avrupa Uyuşturucu ve Uyuşturucu Bağımlılığı İzleme Merkezi. Avrupa Toplulukları Resmi Yayınlar Bürosu. Lüksemburg. (http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/system/files/publications/4541/TDAT17001TRN.pdf) (20/10/2018)

ENNS, B., KREBS, E., DEBECK, K., HAYASHİ, K., MİLLOY, M-J., RİCHARDSON, L., WOOD, E., NOSYK, B. (2017), “The Costs Of Crime Associated With Stimulant Use İn A Canadian Setting”, Drug Alcohol Depend., Nowember 01, Vol. 180, pp.304-310.

ERGİNÖZ, E. (2008), “Adolesan, Madde Bağımlılığı Ve Halk Sağlığı”, İ.Ü. Cerrahpaşa Tıp Fakültesi Sürekli Tıp Eğitimi Etkinlikleri, Adolesan Sağlığı II, Sempozyum Dizisi. 63, s.61-64.

GOTTFREDSON, D., C., KEARLEY, B., W., BUSHWAY, S., D. (2008), “Substance Use, Drug Treatment, and Crime: An Examination of Intra-Individual Variation in a Drug Court Population”, The Journal of Drug Issues, Vol.38, Issue:2, p.601-630.

HANSON, G. R., VENTURELLI, P., J., FLECKENSTEIN, A., E. (2015), Drugs and Society, 12th Edition, Jones & Bartlett Learning, USA.

HARRISON, L., D. (1992), “The Drug-Crime Nexus in the USA”, Academic Journal Contemporary Drug Problems, Summer, 19(2), pp.203- 246.

HARRISON, L., D., BACKENHEIMER, M. (1998), “Editors′ Introduction: Evolving Insights İnto The Drug-Crime Nexus”, Substance Use & Misuse. 33(9), pp.1763-1777.

HAMMERSLEY, R. (2008), Drugs and Crime: Theories and Practices, Crime and Society Series, First Edition, Polity Press, UK.

ISRALOWITZ, R., E., MYERS, P., L. (2011), Illicit Drugs: Health and Medical Issues Today, Greenwood Publishing Group, Santa Barbara, California.

KARATAŞOĞLU, S. (2013), “Sosyal Politika Boyutuyla Madde Bağımlılığı”, Türk İdare Dergisi, S.476, s.321-352.

KAUFFMAN, J., M. (1989), Characteristics of Behaviour Disorders of Children and Youth, 4th Edition, Merlin Publishing Company, Columbus.

KAYLI, D., Ş. (2016), “Sosyal Hizmet Açısından Bağımlılık Polikliniğine Yönlendirilen Madde Bağımlısı Bireylerde Denetimli Serbestlik Sürecinin Etkinliği”, CBÜ Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi. Cilt:14. Sayı:1, s.179-198.

KLEIMAN, M., A., R., COULKINS, J., P., and HAWKEN, A. (2011), Drugs and Drugs Policy What Everyone Needs To Know, First Edition, Oxford University Press Inc., New York.

LESHNER, A., I. (1997), “Addiction is a Brain Disease and It Matters”, Science, Vol. 278, Issue.5335, pp.45-47.

MAcCOUN, R., REUTER, P. (1997), “Interpreting Dutch Cannabis Policy: Reasoningby Analogy in the Legalization Debate”, Science, Vol. 278, Issue. 5335, pp.47-52.

MAcGREGOR, S. (2000), “Editorial: The Drugs-Crime Nexus”, Drugs: Education, Prevention And Policy, Vol.7, No.4, pp.311-316.

McCAFFREY, B. (1997), “Dealing with addiction”, Ed. John Walsh, Jim Fuller, Jerry Stilkind, Tim Brown, GuyOlson, WayneHall, Judith Greenspan, Global Issues, Drug Addiction: The Struggle (pp.5-9), The Electronic Journal of The U.S. Informatin Agency, 2(3), (https://usa.usembassy.de/etexts/soc/ijge0697.pdf) (10/10/2017)

McDONNELL, R., MAYNARD, A. (1985), “Counting The Cost Of Alcohol: Gaps İn Epidemiological Knowledge”, Community Medicine, Vol.7, pp.4-17.

MARCELLI, E., A. (2004), “Drug-Related and Economic Crime Among Unauthorized LatinoImmigrant and Other Arrestees in California”, Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice, Volume:2, Issue:3, pp.23-52.

NJERI N., A., NGESU, L. (2014), “Causes And Effects Of Drug And Substance Abuse Among Secondary School Students In Dagorettı Dıvısıon, Naırobı West Dıstrıct-Kenya”, Global Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, Vol.3(3), pp.1-4.

NURCO, D., N. (1998), “A Long-Term Program Of Research On Drug Use And Crime”, Substance Use and Misuse, 33(9), pp.1817-1837.

ÖGEL, K., ve AKSOY, A. (2007), “Tutuklu ve Hükümlü Ergenlerde Madde Kullanımı”, Bağımlılık Dergisi, Cilt:8, Sayı:1, s.11-17.

POSSI, M., K. (1996), “Effects of Drug Abuse on Cognitive and Social Behaviours: A Potential Problem Among Youth In Tanzania”, Utafiti (New Series). Vol.3, No.1, pp.111-128,

POWELL, M., A. (2011), A Comprehensive Analysis of the Drug-Crime Relationship, Southern Illinois University Carbondale Open SIUC. A Research Paper Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in the field of Criminology, Research Papers, Paper 100, (http://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1059&context=gs_rp) (13.03.2018)

SEDDON, T. (2000), “Explaining the Drug–Crime Link: Theoretical”, Policy and Research Issues, Cambridge University Press Journal of Social Policy, Vol.2, Issue.1, pp.95–107.

SPOONER, C., ve HETHERINGTON, K., (2004), Social Determinants Of Drug Use, Technical Report Number 228, Natıonal Drug And Alcohol Research Centre, University Of New South Wales, Sydney,(https://ndarc.med.unsw.edu.au/sites/default/files/ndarc/resources/TR.228.pdf) (13.03.2018).

STANTON, M., D., TODD, C., T., HEARD, D., B., KIRSCHNER, S., KLEIMAN, J., I., MOWATT, D., T., RILEY, P., SCOTT, S., M., DEUSEN, J., M., V. (1982), “A Conceptual Model”. Ed. M.Duncan Stanton, Thomas C. Todd ve Assocıates, The Family Therapy of Drug Abuse and Addiction (pp.7-30), The Guilford Press, New York.

UGGEN, C., THOMPSON, M. (2003), “The Socioeconomic Determinants Of İll-Gotten Gains: Within-Person Changes In Drug Use And İllegal Earnings” American Journal Of Sociology. Vol.109, No.1, pp.146-185.

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Kaynak Göster

APA Erol Karaca, Z , Gökçearslan Çifci, E . (2021). Madde Kullanımının ve Bağımlılığının Sosyoekonomik Maliyetinin ve Suç İle İlişkisinin Değerlendirilmesi . Manisa Celal Bayar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi , 19 (1) , 42-57 . DOI: 10.18026/cbayarsos.550419