Travma sonrası büyüme: travmaya iyi yanından bakmak

Literatürde travma sonrası gelişen negatif etkileri tanımlayan pek çok çalışma olmasına rağmen, travma sonrası gelişen olumlu gelişmelerin de irdelenmeye başlaması çok eski değildir. Travma sonrası büyüme kavramıyla travmatik olay sonrasında, kişinin yaşamında daha iyi işlevsellik göstermesi ve kendini gerçekleştirmesi adına adımlar atması, kişilerarası ilişkilerde yakınlık duygusunda artma gibi olumlu değişimlerin yaşanması anlatılmaktadır. Bu yazıda travma sonrası büyüme kavramı; kuramsal çerçevesi, bileşenleri ve etkileyen değişkenlerle birlikte ele alınmıştır

POSTTRAUMATIC GROWTH: LOOKING ON THE BRIGHT SIDE OF TRAUMA

The concept of the positive changes after trauma has been recently described, whereas several reported studies focused on the negatif effects of trauma in the literature. Enhanced functionality in life, taking a step for self actualization, establishing intimacy in interpersonal relations after a life crisis are defined with the help of posttraumatic growth concept. In this article, we focused on the concept of posttraumatic growth including theoretical framework, the components and affecting variables of posttraumatic growth

Kaynakça

Alter, C.L., Pelcovitz, D., Axelrod, A., Goldenberg, B., Harris, H., Meyers, B., ... & Kaplan, S. (1996). Identification of PTSD in cancer survivors. Psychosomatics, 37(2), 137-143.

American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

In:5th ed. Washington DC. Andrykowski, M.A., Curran, S.L., Studts, J.L., Cunningham, L., Carpenter, J.S., McGrath, P.C., Kenady, D.E. (1996). Psychosocial adjustment and quality of life in women with breast cancer and benign breast problems: a controlled comparison. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 49(8), 827

Andrykowski, M.A., Cordova, M.J., Studts, J.L., Miller, T.W. (1998). Posttraumatic stress disorder after treatment for breast cancer: Prevalence of diagnosis and use of the PTSD Checklist—

Civilian Version (PCL—C) as a screening instrument. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(3), 586. Armstrong, D., Shakespeare-Finch, J. (2011). Relationship to the bereaved and perceptions of severity of trauma differentiate elements of posttraumatic growth. OMEGA-Journal of Death and Dying, 63(2), 125-140.

Bellizzi, K.M., Blank, T.O. (2006). Predicting posttraumatic growth in breast cancer survivors.

Health Psychology, 25(1), 47. Bogensperger, J., Lueger-Schuster, B. (2014). Losing a child: Finding meaning in bereavement.

European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 5. Bower, J.E., Meyerowitz, B.E., Bernaards, C.A., Rowland, J.H., Ganz, P.A., Desmond, K.A. (2005). Perceptions of positive meaning and vulnerability following breast cancer: predictors and outcomes among long-term breast cancer survivors. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 29(3), 236

Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and Loss: Attachment. V. Basic Books.

Calhoun, L,G., & Tedeschi, R.G. (1998). Beyond recovery from trauma: Implications for clinical practice and research. Journal of Social Issues, 54(2), 357-371.

Calhoun, L,G., Tedeschi, R.G. (2001). Posttraumatic growth. Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology.

Carver, C.S., Antoni, M,H. (2004). Finding benefit in breast cancer during the year after diagnosis predicts better adjustment 5 to 8 years after diagnosis. Health psychology, 23(6), 595.

Creamer, M., Burgess, P., Pattison, P. (1992). Reaction to trauma: a cognitive processing model.

Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101(3), 452. Curbow, B., Legro, M.W., Baker, F., Wingard, J.R., Somerfield, M.R. (1993). Loss and recovery themes of long-term survivors of bone marrow transplants. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, (4), 1-20.

Engelkemeyer, S.M., Marwit, S.J. (2008). Posttraumatic growth in bereaved parents. Journal of

Traumatic Stress, 21(3), 344-346. Epstein, S. (1973) The self-concept revisited: Or a theory of a theory. American Psychologist, (5), 404.

Foa, E.B., Steketee, G., Rothbaum, B.O. (1989). Behavioral/cognitive conceptualizations of post- traumatic stress disorder. Behavior Therapy, 20(2), 155-176.

Foa, E.B., Ehlers, A., Clark, D.M., Tolin, D.F., Orsillo, S.M. (1999). The posttraumatic cognitions inventory (PTCI): Development and validation. Psychological Assessment, 11(3), 303.

Hamera, E.K., Shontz, F.C. (1978). Perceived positive and negative effects of life-threatening illness. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 22(5), 419-424.

Helgeson, V.S., Reynolds, K.A., Tomich, P.L. (2006). A meta-analytic review of benefit finding and growth. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(5), 797.

Janoff-Bulman, R. (2004). Posttraumatic growth: Three explanatory models. Psychological Inquiry, (1), 30-34.

Janoff-Bulman, R. (1989). Assumptive worlds and the stress of traumatic events: Applications of the schema construct. Social Cognition, 7(2), 113-136.

Janoff-Bulman, R., Berg, M., Harvey, J.H. (1998). Disillusionment and the creation of value: From traumatic losses to existential gains. Perspectives on loss: A Sourcebook, 35-47.

Janoff-Bulman, R., Yopyk, D.J. (2004). Random outcomes and valued commitments. Handbook of

Experimental & Existential Psychology, 122-138. Janoff-Bulman, R. (1989). Assumptive worlds and the stress of traumatic events: Applications of the schema construct. Social cognition, 7(2), 113-136.

Janoff‐Bulman, R., Frieze, I.H. (1983). A theoretical perspective for understanding reactions to victimization. Journal of Social ssues, 39(2), 1-17.

Jim, H.S., Jacobsen, P.B. (2008). Posttraumatic stress and posttraumatic growth in cancer survivorship: a review. The Cancer Journal, 14(6), 414-419.

Jones, E., Wessely, S. (2005). Shell shock to PTSD: Military psychiatry from 1900 to the Gulf War. Psychology Press.

Joseph, S., Linley, P.A. (2005). Positive adjustment to threatening events: An organismic valuing theory of growth through adversity. Review of General Psychology, 9(3), 262.

Kaptanoğlu, C. (2003). Psikolojik travma ve tanım sorunları. Psikolojik travma ve sonuçları, 1.

Baskı, T Aker, ME Önder (Ed), İstanbul: 5US Yayınları Karancı, N. (2005). Travma-sonrası gelişim ve yordayıcı faktörler. Uluslararası Ruhsal Travma Toplantıları IV, Özet Kitabı.

Kobasa, S.C. (1979). Stressful life events, personality, and health: an inquiry into hardiness.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37(1), 1. Lechner, S.C., Carver, C.S., Antoni, M.H. (2006). Curvilinear associations between benefit finding and psychosocial adjustment to breast cancer. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 74: –840.

Lerner, M.J. (1980). The belief in a just world. In The Belief in a just World (pp. 9-30). Springer US.

Linley, P.A., Joseph, S. (2004). Positive change following trauma and adversity: A review. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 17(1), 11-21.

Magwaza, A.S. (1999). Assumptive world of traumatized South African adults. The Journal of

Social Psychology, 139(5), 622-630. Matthews, L.T., Marwit, S.J. (2004). Examining the assumptive world views of parents bereaved by accident, murder, and illness. OMEGA-Journal of Death and Dying, 48(2), 115-136.

McCrae, R.R., John, O.P. (1992). An introduction to the five‐factor model and its applications.

Journal of Personality, 60(2), 175-215. Mystakidou, K., Tsilika, E., Parpa, E., Kyriakopoulos, D., Malamos, N., Damigos, D. (2008).

Personal growth and psychological distress in advanced breast cancer. The Breast, 17(4), 382- Parkes, C.M. (1971). Psycho-social transitions: A field for study. Social Science & Medicine 5(2), 115.

Porter, L.S., Clayton, M.F., Belyea, M., Mishel, M., Gil, K.M., Germino, B.B. (2006). Predicting negative mood state and personal growth in African American and white long-term breast cancer survivors. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 31(3), 195-204.

Sears, S.R., Stanton, A.L., Danoff-Burg, S. (2003). The yellow brick road and the emerald city: benefit finding, positive reappraisal coping and posttraumatic growth in women with early-stage breast cancer. Health Psychology, 22(5), 487.

Schulz, R., O'Brien, A.T., Bookwala, J., Fleissner, K. (1995). Psychiatric and physical morbidity effects of dementia caregiving: prevalence, correlates, and causes. The Gerontologist, 35(6), 771

Schulz, U., Mohamed, N.E. (2004). Turning the tide: Benefit finding after cancer surgery. Social

Science & Medicine, 59(3), 653-662. Siegel, R., Ward, E., Brawley, O. (2011). Cancer statistics: The impact of eliminating socioeconomic and racial disparities on premature cancer deaths. CA Cancer J Clin, 61: 212-236.

Stanton, A.L., Danoff-Burg, S., Cameron, C.L., Bishop, M., Collins, C.A., Kirk, S.B., ... & Twillman, R. (2000). Emotionally expressive coping predicts psychological and physical adjustment to breast cancer. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(5), 875.

Tamres, L.K., Janicki, D., Helgeson, V.S. (2002). Sex differences in coping behavior: A meta- analytic review and an examination of relative coping. Personality and Social Psychology Review, (1), 2-30.

Taylor, V. (1977). Good news about disaster. Psychology Today, 11(5), 93.

Tedeschi, R.G., Calhoun, L.G. (2004). " Posttraumatic growth: Conceptual foundations and empirical evidence". Psychological Inquiry, 15(1), 1-18.

Tedeschi, R.G. (1998). Posttraumatic growth: Positive changes in the aftermath of crisis. Tedeschi

RG, Park CL, Calhoun LG (Eds.) Routledge. Tedeschi, R.G., Calhoun, L.G. (1996). The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory: Measuring the positive legacy of trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9(3), 455-471.

Tedeschi, R.G., Calhoun, L.G. (1995). Trauma and transformation: Growing in the aftermath of suffering. Sage Publications.

Tempelaar R, De Haes JC, De Ruiter JH, Bakker D, Van den Heuvel WJA, Van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.G. (1989). The social experiences of cancer patients under treatment: A comparative study.

Social Science & Medicine, 29(5), 635-642. Thornton, A.A., Perez, M.A. (2006). Posttraumatic growth in prostate cancer survivors and their partners. Psycho‐Oncology, 15(4), 285-296.

Timberlake, N., Klinger, L., Smith, P., Venn, G., Treasure, T., Harrison, M., Newman, S.P. (1997).

Incidence and patterns of depression following coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 43(2), 197-207. Tomich, P.L., Helgeson, V.S. (2004). Is finding something good in the bad always good? Benefit finding among women with breast cancer. Health Psychology, 23(1), 16.

Türksoy, N. (2003). Psikolojik travma ve tanım sorunları. Psikolojik travma ve sonuçları, 1. Baskı,

T Aker, ME Önder (Eds), İstanbul: 5US Yayınları, s. 9-21. Ullman, S.E., Peter‐Hagene, L. (2014). Social reactions to sexual assault disclosure, coping, perceived control, and PTSD symptoms in sexual assault victims. Journal of Community Psychology, 42(4), 495-508.

Urcuyo, K.R., Boyers, A.E., Carver, C.S., Antoni, M.H. (2005). Finding benefit in breast cancer:

Relations with personality, coping, and concurrent well-being. Psychology & Health, 20(2), 175- Weiss, T. (2004). Correlates of posttraumatic growth in married breast cancer survivors. Journal of

Social and Clinical Psychology, 23(5), 733-746. Werner, E.E. (2000). Protective factors and individual resilience. Handbook of Early Childhood Intervention, 2, 115-132.

Wickie, S.K., Marwit, S.J. (2001). Assumptive world views and the grief reactions of parents of murdered children. OMEGA-Journal of Death and Dying, 42(2), 101-113.

Widows, M.R., Jacobsen, P.B., Booth-Jones, M., Fields, K.K. (2005). Predictors of posttraumatic growth following bone marrow transplantation for cancer. Health Psychology, 24(3), 266.

Yalom, I. (1999). Varoluşçu psikoterapi. İstanbul: Kabalcı Yayınevi.

Yılmaz, B. (2006). Arama kurtarma çlışanlarında travma sonraa sı stres belirtileri ve travma sonrası büyüme ile ilişkili değişkenler. Doktora Tezi: Ankara Üniversitesi, Ankara.

Yu, X.N., Lau, J.T., Zhang, J., Mak, WW., Choi, KC., Lui, WW., Chan, EY. (2010). Posttraumatic growth and reduced suicidal ideation among adolescents at month 1 after the Sichuan

Earthquake. Journal of Affective Disorders, 123(1), 327-331.

Kaynak Göster

APA Ezerbolat, M , Özpolat, A . (2016). Travma sonrası büyüme: travmaya iyi yanından bakmak . Kriz Dergisi , 24 (1) , 0-0 . DOI: 10.1501/Kriz_0000000353