Farkındalık (mindfulness), dikkatin şimdiki ana yöneltilerek, anlık deneyimlerin yargılanmadan ve kabullenmeyle gözlemlenmesine dayanmaktadır. Farkındalık, otuz yıla yakın bir süredir Batı'daki psikoterapi yaklaşımları içerisinde bir terapi yöntemi olarak kullanılmaktadır. Kökenleri Doğu'nun kişisel gelişim pratiklerine dayanan farkındalığı, psikolojik süreçler temelinde açıklamaya çalışan pek çok çalışma olduğu görülmektedir. Farkındalıkla ilgili araştırmaların bir bölümü Farkındalık Temelli Terapilerin etki mekanizmalarına yöneliktir. Üst biliş, duygulanım düzenleme, dikkat düzenleme ve içsel maruz bırakma Farkındalık Temelli Terapilerin içerdiği değişim mekanizmaları olarak önerilmiştir. Farkındalığı üstbilişsel bir bilgi işlemleme süreci olarak ele alan görüşlerde, farkındalığın içerdiği bilişsel uzaklaşma yoluyla, işlevsiz üst biliş inanışlarının etkisinin azaldığı belirtilmektedir. Farkındalığın duygulanım düzenleme üzerindeki olumlu etkileri Farkındalık Temelli Terapi uygulamalarına önemli bir etki mekanizması olarak ortaya çıkmaktadır. Farkındalığın duygulanımsal toleransı ve işlevsel duygulanım düzenlenmesini desteklediğini belirten görüşler bulunmaktadır. Şimdiki ana odaklanmış dikkatin, farkındalığın temel bileşenlerinden olduğu düşünülmektedir. Farkındalığın dikkat süreçleri üzerindeki etkilerini inceleyen çalışmalarda, farkındalık ile dikkat bileşenleri arasında ilişki bulunduğu görülmüştür. Olumlu veya olumsuz tüm içsel yaşantılara yönelimi içeren farkındalığın, içsel maruz bırakma yöntemiyle benzer etki mekanizmasına sahip olduğu düşünülmektedir. Farkındalığın bilişsel ve duygulanımsal süreçlerle ilişkisini açıklayan pek çok görüş ve bulgu ortaya konulduğu görülmektedir. Anılan bulgular farkındalığın operasyonel düzeyde tanımlanması ve Farkındalık Temelli Terapilerin etkililiğinin yükseltilmesi açısından önemli bir adımdır.
Mindfulness is based on focusing attention to present moment and observing present moment experiences in a non-judgmental and accepting way. Mindfulness has been applied as a therapy method in Western psychotherapy practice for almost thirty years. While mindfulness stems from Eastern contemplative practices, a number of studies had investigated the psychological processes underlying mindfulness. Some of these studies focused on explaining the change mechanisms through which mindfulness-based interventions have their therapeutic effects. Meta-cognition, emotion regulation, attention regulation and interoceptive exposure have been suggested as change mechanisms involved in mindfulness based therapies. The notion explaining mindfulness as a meta-cognitive information processing asserts that the decentering involved in mindfulness decreases the effects of maladaptive meta-cognitive beliefs. The incremental effect of mindfulness on emotion regulation is another proposed effect mechanism in mindfulness-based interventions. This view suggests that mindfulness supports emotional tolerance and adaptive emotion regulation. The present-focused attention is regarded as a fundamental component of mindfulness. In studies investigating the effects of mindfulness on attentional processes, relationships have been found between mindfulness and the components of executive attention. It has also been proposed that interoceptive exposure technique and mindfulness operate through a similar therapeutic mechanism since mindfulness involves orientation towards all negative and positive subjective experiences. A number of views have been proposed regarding the relation between mindfulness and cognitive and emotional processes and the findings supported the effects of mindfulness on these processes. This is an important step towards explaining mindfulness on an operational level and increasing the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions.
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