Çevresel ve Paleoiklimsel Faktörlerin Etkisinde Doğu Afrika'da İnsanın Evrimi

Fosil kayıtlar insan evriminde türleşme, dik yürüme, beyin büyüklüğünde artış, göç olayları ve alet kullanımı gibi önemli evrimsel değişimlerin büyük olasılıkla Doğu Afrika'da ortaya çıktığını göstermektedir. İnsan evrimi çalışmalarında disiplinlerarası yaklaşım, farklı alanlarda üretilen yeni ve çeşitli proksi veriler, doğruluk derecesi yüksek tarihlendirme metotları insan evrimi ve çevresel değişimler arasında daha net bağlantıların kurulmasını sağlamaktadır. Güncel çalışmalar insan evriminde son 10 milyon yılda meydana gelen önemli değişimlerin, dünyanın yörüngesel hareketleri ve Büyük Rift Vadisi'ndeki tektonik aktivitelerinin etkilediği çevresel ve atmosferik faktörler tarafından kontrol edildiğini önermektedir. Bu değerlendirme çalışması, Doğu Afrika'da insan evrimini biçimlendiren olası çevresel ve iklimsel faktörleri belirlerken bu faktörleri insan evrimine entegre eden, süre ve coğrafik alan bakımından farklı ölçeklere dayanan evrimsel modelleri tartışmaktadır. Jeoloji, paleoekoloji, paleoiklim, paleontoloji ve paleoantropoloji bilimlerinin ortak çalışmaları çevre/iklim deği- şimleri ve insan evrimi arasındaki ilişkileri anlamak için gerekli olan platformu sağlamaya devam edecektir.

Human Evolution in East Africa under the Influence of Environmental and Paleoclimatic Forces

Fossil records indicate that major evolutionary changes such as; speciation, upright walking, increased brain size, dispersal events, and tool use most probably first occurred in the eastern Africa. Multi-disciplinary approaches to the study of human evolution, new and varied proxy data from different fields, and increased accuracy in dating methods permits sharper correlations between environmental changes and human evolution. Recent studies show that major changes in human evolution have been strongly influenced by environmental and atmospheric factors which were mediated by changes in orbital forcing and tectonic events in the Great Rift Valley over the last 10 million years. This review focuses on mapping the potential environmental and paleoclimatic driving factors that shaped human evolution in East Africa and examines evolutionary models based on different temporal and geographic scales that integrate these changes into human evolution. Collaborative studies between geology, paleoecology, paleoclimatology, paleontology, and paleoanthropology will continue to provide the optimum framework in order to understand the relationships between environmental/climate change and human evolution.

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