KARADENİZ HAVZASI'NDAKİ ÇATIŞMA GERÇEKLİĞİNİN GÜVENLİKLEŞTİRME YAKLAŞIMI ÇERÇEVESİNDE ANLAMLANDIRILMASI

Karadeniz Havzası, Soğuk Savaş sonrası, coğrafi kapsam ve sistemsel anlam bakımından ciddi bir değişim geçirmiştir. Soğuk Savaş'ın sona ermesi, SSCB'nin kurguladığı ve havza ülkeleri arasındaki ilişkileri biçimlendiren siyasal altyapının da çökmesine neden olmuştur. Havzanın uluslararası sistem çerçevesinde süregelen rekabete eklemlenmesi, havza ülkelerinin içselleştirmiş oldukları tarihsel meseleler, toplumsal gerginlikler ve siyasal sorunlar ile birleştiği noktada, çatışma tabanlı bir görünüm yaratmıştır. Karadeniz Havzası tanımının kapsamı ve içeriğine ilişkin belirsizlik de bölgesel gerginliği arttıran önemli bir faktör olmuştur. Havzaya hâkim olan çatışmacı altyapının değerlendirilmesinde, genel olarak devlet merkezli ve realist/neorealist anlamlandırmalar yapılmıştır. Bu çalışma ise, Karadeniz Havzası'ndaki çatışmacı ilişkiler ağını konstrüktivist tabanlı bir güvenlik kuramı olan Güvenlikleştirme Yaklaşımı çerçevesinde irdeleyecektir.

Making Sense of the Reality of Conflict in the Black Sea Basin Within the Context of the Theory of Securitization

The Black Sea Basin has seen a dramatic change both in geographical extent and systemic sense after the Cold War. Completion of the Cold War induced the collapse of the political substructure which is fictionalised by the USSR for shaping the relations between the countries of the basin. Articulation of the basin into the competition that obtains within the scope of the international system has created conflict oriented scenery, when it's converged with the historical problems, social tension and political challenges that the countries of the basin had already interiorised. This study will probe the conflictual disposition of the Black Sea Basin within the context of the theory of Securitization, which based on the theory of social constructivism.

Kaynakça

AÇIKMEŞE Sinem Akgül (2011), "Algı mı, Söylem mi? Kopenhag Okulu ve Yeni Klasik Gerçekçilikte Güvenlik Teorileri", Uluslararası İlişkiler, VIII (30): 43-73.

ALTMANN Franz Lothar - Johanna Deimel - Johanna Schmidt - Armando Garcia (2010), "Democracy and Good Governance in the Black Sea Re- gion", Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, X (3): 303-321.

AURESCU Bogdan (2011), "The Role of the European Union in the Wider Black Sea Region", Turkish Policy Quarterly, X (1): 35-45.

AYDIN Mustafa (2000), "Black Sea and the Caucasus Region; Causes of In- stability and the Ways to Deal with Them", The Turkish Yearbook, XXX: 213-225.

---- (2004), "Europe's Next Shore: the Black Sea Region After EU Enlarge- ment", EU Institute for Security Studies Occasional Paper, 53.

---- (2005), "Regional Cooperation in the Black Sea and the Role of Institu- tions", Perceptions, X (3): 57-83.

BECHEV Dimitar (2006), "Carrots, Sticks and Norms: the EU and Regional Cooperation in Southeast Europe", Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, VIII (1): 27-43.

BİLGİN Pınar (2010), "Güvenlik Çalışmalarında Yeni Açılımlar: Yeni Güven- lik Çalışmaları", Stratejik Araştırmalar Dergisi, VIII (14): 69-96.

BOOTH Ken (1998), "Security and Self: Reflections of a Fallen Realist", Criti- cal Security Studies: Concepts and Cases, (der. Keith Krause ve Michael C. Williams), Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 83-120.

BUZAN Barry (1991), "New Patterns of Global Security in the Twenty-First Century", International Relations, LXVII (3): 431-451.

BUZAN Barry - Ole Waever - Jaap De Wilde (1998). Security: A New Frame- work for Analysis, Boulder CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

CANAR Burçin (2012), "Soğuk Savaş Sonrasında Amerika Birleşik Devletleri'nin Karadeniz Politikası", Ankara Üniversitesi SBF Dergisi, LXVII (1): 49-80.

CHINN Jeff - Steven D. ROPER (1995), "Ethnic Mobilization and Reactive Nationalism: The Case of Moldova", Nationalities Papers, XXIII (2): 291- 325.

CLARK Janine-Natalya (2010), "Religion and Reconciliation in Bosnia& Her- zegovina: Are Religious Actors Doing Enough?", Europe-Asia Studies, LXII (4): 671-694.

ÇELİKPALA Mitat (2010), "Escalating Rivalries and Diverging Interests: Prospects for Stability and Security in the Black Sea Region", Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, X (3): 287-302.

ÇELİKPALA Mitat (2010), "Security in the Black Sea Region", Commission on the Black Sea Policy Report, 2.

DİKKAYA Mehmet - D. ÖZYAKIŞIR (2008), "Developing Regional Coopera- tion among Turkey, Georgia and Azerbaijan: Importance of Regional Projects", Perceptions, XII: 93-118.

DOBRIJEVIC Irinej (2001), "The Role of the Serbian Orthodox Church in National Self Determination and Regional Integration", Serbian Studies: Journal of the North American Society for Serbian Studies, XV (1): 103- 110.

DRAGNEVA Rilka-Kataryna Wolczuk (2012), "Russia, the Eurasian Customs Union and the EU: Cooperation, Stagnation or Rivalry?", Chatham House Briefing Paper.

EFEGİL Ertan (2008), "Turkey's New Approaches Toward the PKK, Iraqi Kurds and the Kurdish Question", Insight Turkey, X (3): 53-73.

FLOYD Rita (2007). "Human Security and the Copenhagen School's Securiti- zation Approach: Conceptualizing Human Security As a Securitizing Move", Human Security Journal, V: 38-49.

GAVRAS Panagiotis (2010), "The Current State of Economic Development in the Black Sea Region", Commission on the Black Sea, Policy Report, 1.

GÖL Ayla (2005), "Imagining Turkish Nation Through Othering Armenians", Nations and Nationalism, XI (1): 121-139.

GROTZKY Daniel-Mirela Isic (2008), "The Black Sea Region: Clashing Identi- ties and Risks to European Stability", CAP Policy Analysis, 4.

HUSZKA Beata (2007), "The Presevo Valley of Southern Serbia Alongside Kosovo: The Case for Decentralisation and Minority Protection", CEPS Policy Brief, 120.

HUYSMANS Jef (2006). The Politics of Insecurity: Fear, Migration and Asylum in the EU, New York: Routledge Publishing.

IBRAHIM Maggie (2005), "The Securitization of Migration: A Racial Dis- course", International Migration, XXXXIII (5): 163-187.

JAPARIDZE Tedo (2007). "The Black Sea Region: Meaning and Significance", American Foreign Policy Interests, XXIX (2): 113-125.

JUDAH Tim (2001), "Greater Albania?", Survival, XXXXIII (2): 7-18.

KARADENİZ Bülent (2007). "Security and Stability Architecture in the Black Sea", Perceptions, XII (4): 95-117.

KEMPE Iris - Kurt Klotzle (2006), "The Balkans and the Black Sea Region: Problems, Potentials and Policy Options", CAP Policy Analysis, 2.

KERR David (1995), "The New Eurasianism: The Rise of Geopolitics in Rus- sia's Foreign Policy", Europe-Asia Studies, XXXXVII (6): 977-988.

KLYMKO-OVERCHENKO Yuliya (2008), European Union Engagement in the Black Sea Region: Efforts to Combat Illegal Migration, Bruges: College of Europe Department of EU International Relations and Diplomacy Stud- ies.

KOLOSSOV Vladimir-John O'Laughlin (2011), "Violence in the Caucasus: Economic Insecurities and Migration in the De Facto States of Abkhazia and South Ossetia", Eurasian Geography and Economics, LII (5): 1-24.

KOSTOVICOVA Denisa (2005), Kosovo: the Politics of Identity and Space, New York: Routledge Publishing.

LAUSTSEN Carsten Bagge-Ole Waever (2000), "In Defence of Religion: Sa- cred Referent Objects For Securitization", Millennium Journal of Inter- national Studies, XXIX (3): 705-739.

MİŞ Nebi (2011), "Güvenlikleştirme Teorisi ve Siyasal Olanın Güven- likleştirilmesi", Akademik İncelemeler Dergisi, VI (2): 345-381.

ORTAYLI İlber (2012), İmparatorluğun En Uzun Yüzyılı, İstanbul: Timaş Yayınları.

ÖZDAMAR Özgür (2010), "Security and Military Balance in the Black Sea Region", Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, X (3): 341-359.

PAPAVA Vladimer (2010), "The Economic Development Complex in the Black Sea Area: The Impact of the Global Financial and Economic Cri- sis", ICBSS Xenophon Paper, 9.

PESIC Vesna (2009), "Serbian Nationalism and the Origins of the Yugoslav Crisis", United States Institute of Peace (USIP) Peaceworks, 8.

PETROV Nikolay (2009), "Russia's Over-Managed Democracy in Crisis", PONARS Eurasia Policy Memo, 70.

POPOV Vladimir (2011), "Mortality Crisis in Russia Revisited: Evidence From Cross-Regional Comparison", CEFIR Working Paper, 157.

ROMANIUK Scott (2008), "The Russian Minority in Post-Communist Poli- tics: a Case Study of Ukraine, Moldova and Chechnya", Central Europe- an Journal of International and Security Studies, II (2): 56-75.

SAPMAZ Ahmet (2008). Rusya'nın Transkafkasya Politikası ve Türkiye'ye Etkileri, İstanbul: Ötüken Neşriyat.

SCHAFFNER Christina-Susan Bassnet (2010), Political Discourse, Media and Translation, Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

SHUMYLO-TAPIOLA Olga (2012), "The Eurasian Customs Union: Friend or Foe of the EU?", The Carnegie Papers.

TASSINARI Fabrizio (2011), "Region-Building As Trust Building: the EU's Faltering Involvement in the Black Sea Region", Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, XI (3): 227-239.

TSANTOULIS Yannis (2008), "Subregionalism in the Black Sea and the EU's Role: Incentives, Obstacles and a New Synergy", ZEI Discussion Papers, 183.

UCHLING Greta Lynn (2004), Beyond Memory: The Crimean Tatars, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

ÜLGER Fatih (2007), "Euro-Atlantic Strategy for the Black Sea Region", Yale Journal of International Affairs, II (2): 57-68.

WAEVER Ole (1995), "Securitization and Desecuritization", On Security, (der. R.D.Lipschutz), New York: Columbia University Press, 46-86.

WAEVER Ole (2008), "Toplumsal Güvenliğin Değişen Gündemi", Uluslararası İlişkiler, V (18): 151-178.

WILLIAMS Michael C. (2003). "Words, Images, Enemies: Securitization and International Politics", International Studies Quarterly, XXXXVII: 511- 531.

YILMAZ Reha-Elnur İsmayılov (2011), "Etnik Çatışma Teorileri Işığında Dağlık Karabağ Sorunu", BİLGESAM Rapor 37.

Kaynak Göster