Araştırma, değer uyumunun, marka aşkının ve marka imajının, pozitif ağızdan ağıza iletişime yol açan tüketici rollerinin değerlendirilmesi amacıyla gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmanın evrenini Gaziantep’te yer alan kozmetik firmalarından alışveriş yapan kadın tüketiciler oluşturmaktadır. Araştırma kapsamında tesadüfi olmayan örneklemelerden ‘kolayda örneklem’ yöntemi uygulanmıştır. Örneklem sayısı ise 395 anket formunda yer alan verilerden yola çıkarak değerlendirilmiştir. Araştırmada hipotezlerin test edilmesi için Smart PLS 3 (Partial Least Squares) istatistik programı kullanılmıştır. Araştırmada ölçülmesi amaçlanan hipotezlerin testi için bootstrapping tekniği uygulanmıştır. Analiz sonuçlarına göre değer uyumunun marka imajını, marka imajının da marka aşkını pozitif yönde anlamlı olarak etkilediği tespit edilmiştir. Değer uyumu, marka imajı ve marka aşkının marka bağlılığına etkisi anlamlı çıkmıştır. Son olarak marka aşkının ve marka bağlılığının pozitif ağızdan ağıza iletişim üzerinde pozitif anlamlı etkisi olduğu yapılan analizler sonucunda tespit edilmiştir.
The research was carried out to evaluate value congruity, brand love and brand image and also consumer roles leading to positive word of mouth. The universe of the research consists of women consumers shopping from cosmetics companies located in Gaziantep. Within the scope of the research, the convenience sampling' method, which is one of the non-random samples, was applied. The number of samples was evaluated based on the data in the 395 questionnaire forms. Smart PLS 3 (Partial Least Squares) statistics program was used to test hypotheses in the research. Bootstrapping technique was used to test the hypotheses that were aimed to be measured in the research. According to the results of the analysis, it has been determined that the value congruity positively affects the brand image and the brand image affects brand love positively. The value congruity, brand image and brand love have significant effect on brand commitment. Finally, it has been determined as a result of the analyzes that brand love and brand commitment have a positive and significant effect on positive word of mouth.
Aaker, D. A. 1996. “Measuring brand equity across products and markets”. California Management Review, 38(3), 102-120.
Aaker, J. L. 1997. “Dimensions of brand personality.” Journal of Marketing, 34(3), 47-56.
Ahuvia, A. C. 1993. “I love it! Towards an unifying theory of love across divers love objects.” Ph. Dissertation, Northwestern University.
Ak, T. 2009. “Marka Yönetimi ve Tüketici Karar Sürecine Etkileri.” Yayınlanmış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Karamanoğlu Mehmet Bey Üniversitesi: Karaman.
Akın, M. 2017. “The effects of young consumers’ love for smart mobıle phone brands on brand loyalty.” International Review of Management and Business Research, 6(1), 362-370.
Albert, N. ve Merunka, D. 2013. “The role of brand love in consumer-brand relationships.”Journal of Consumer Marketing, 30(3), 258-266.
Albert, N., Merunka, D. ve Valette-Florence, P. 2008. “When consumers love their brands: Exploring the concept and its dimensions.” Journal of Business Research, 61(10), 1062-1075.
Al-Haddad A. 2019. “Social Identification, Brand Image and Customer Satisfaction as Determinants of Brand Love.” In: Mateev M., Poutziouris P. (eds) Creative Business and Social Innovations for a Sustainable Future. Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation (IEREK Interdisciplinar y Series for Sustainable Development). Springer, Cham.
Al-Haddad, A. 2014. “The effect of brand image and brand loyalty on brand equity.” International Journal of Business and Management Invention, 3(51), 28-32.
Ali, F., Rasoolimanesh, S.M., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C.M. ve Ryu, K. 2018. “An assessment of the use of partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) in hospitality research”.International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 30(1), 514-538.
Alkhawaldeh, A.M., Salleh, S.M.ve Halim, F. 2016. “Linkages between Political Brand Image, Affective Commitment and Electors Loyalty: The Moderating Influence of Reference Group.”Soc. Sci. Electron. Publ., 5, 18-36.
Anastasiei, B. ve Dospinescu, N. 2019. “Electronic Word-of-Mouth for Online Retailers: Predictors of Volume and Valence.”Sustainability, 11, 814.
Anggraeni, A. 2015. “Effects of Brand Love, Personality and Image on Word of Mouth; the Case of Local Fashion Brands among Young Consumers.”Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 211, 442-447.
Anwar, A., Gulzar, A., Sohail, F. ve Akram, S. 2011. “Impact of brand image, trust and affect on consumer brand extension attitude: the mediating role of brand loyalty.”International Journal of Economics and Management Sciences, 1(5), 73-79.
Arndt, J. 1967. “The role of product-related conversations in the diffusion of a new product.”Journal of Marketing Research, 4, 291-295.
Assael, H. 2004. “Consumer behavior: A strategic approach.” Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Balıkçıoğlu, B. ve Oflazoğlu, S. 2015. “Marka Evangelizmi, Benlik-Marka İmajı Uyumu ve Marka Sadakati İlişkisi Üzerine Ampirik Bir Araştırma.” Tüketici ve Tüketim Araştırmaları Dergisi, 7(2), 19-45.
Batra, R., Ahuvia, A. ve Bagozzi, R.P. 2012. “Brand Love”. Journal of Marketing, 76, 1-16.
Becheur, I., Bayarassou, O., ve Ghrib, H. 2017. “Beyond brand personality: Building consumer-brand emotional relationship.” Global Business Review, 18(3S), 1-17.
Bergkvist, L. ve Bech-Larsen, T. 2010. “Two studies of consequences and actionable antecedents of brand love.” Brand Management, 7(7), 504-518.
Bıçakcıoğlu, N., İpek, İ. ve Bayraktaroğlu, G. 2016. “Antecedents and outcomes of brand love: the mediating role of brand loyalty.” Journal of Marketing Communications, 24(8), 863-877.
Burmann, C., Jost-Benz, M. ve Riley, N. 2009. “Towards an identity-based brand equity model.”Journal of Business Research, 62(2009), 390-397.
Carroll, B. A., ve Ahuvia, A.C. 2006. “Some antecedents and outcomes of brand love”. Market Letter, 17(2), 79- 89.
Chandon, P. 2003. “Notes on measuring brand awareness, brand image, brand equity and brand value”, INSEAD Working Paper Series, March.
Charlett, D., Garland, R. ve Marr, N. 1995. “How Damaging is Negative Word of Mouth?” Marketing Bulletin, 6, 42-50.
Chen, Chin-Tsu. 2016. “The Investigation on Brand Image of University Education and Students’ Word-of-Mouth Behavior.”Higher Education Studies, 6(4), 23-33.
Cheung, C. M., Lee, M. K., ve Thadani, D. R. 2009. “The impact of positive electronic word-of-mouth on consumer online purchasing decision.” In World Summit on Knowledge Society (pp. 501-510). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
Chiosa, A. R., ve Anastasiei, B. 2017. “Negative Word-of-Mouth: Exploring the Impact of Adverse Messages on Consumers' Reactions on Facebook.”Review of Economic and Business Studies, 10(2), 157-173.
Del Rio, A. B., Vazquez, R. ve Iglesias, V. 2001. “The effects of brand associations on consumer response”. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 18(4/5), 410-425.
Farhat, R. ve Khan, B.M. 2012. “Effect of Brand Image & Self Image Congruency on Brand Preference & Customer Satisfaction.”International Journal of Marketing and Technology, 2(3), 92-102.
Ferguson, R.J., Paulin, M. ve Bergeron, J. 2009. “Customer sociability and the total service experience. Antecedents of positive word-of-mouth intentions.”Journal of Service Management, 21(1), 25-44.
Fetscherin, M., Boulanger, M., Gonçalves Filho, C. ve Quiroga Souki, G. 2014. “The effect of product category on consumer brand relationships.” Journal of Product & Brand Management, 23(2), 78-89.
Fornell, C. & Larcker, D. F. 1981.“Structural Equation Models With Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error: Algebra and Statistics.”Journal of Marketing Research, May, 382-388.
Fournier, S., ve Mick, D.G. 1999. “Rediscovering satisfaction.”Journal of Marketing, 63(4), 5-23.
Gul, M.S., Jan, F.A., Baloch, Q.B., Jan, M.F., ve Jan, M.F. 2012.“Brand image and brand loyalty.”Abasyn Journal of Social Sciences, 3(1), 55-74.
Ha, S., ve Im, H. 2012. “Identifying the Role of Self-Congruence on Shopping Behavior in the Context of U.S. Shopping Malls.”Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 30(2), 87-101.
Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M. ve Sarstedt, M. 2016. “A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM).” Londra: Sage publications.
Hair, J. F., Risher, J. J., Sarstedt, M. ve Ringle, C. M. 2019. “When to use and how to report the results of PLSSEM.”European Business Review, 31(1), 2-24.
Hair, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., ve Mena, J. A. 2012. “An Assessment of the Use of Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling in Marketing Research.”Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 40(3), 414-433.
Hair, J.F., Ringle, C.M. ve Sarstedt, M. 2011. “PLS-SEM: indeed a silver bullet”.Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 19(2), 139-152.
Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., ve Sinkovics, R. R. 2009. “The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing.”In New challenges to international marketing. Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Heris, M.S. ve Ahmadian, B. 2017. “The Effects of Brand Image on Brand Love in the Sport Products of Companies of Nike and Adidas from the Sport Customers Perspective”. Conference: National Congress on Sport Sciences at Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz.
Hu, L. T., ve Bentler, P. M. 1999. “Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives.”Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1-55.
Huang, C. C. 2017. “The impacts of brand experiences on brand loyalty: mediators of brand love and trust.” Management Decision, 55(5), 915-934.
Islam, J., Rahman, Z. ve Hollebeek, L. 2018a. “Consumer engagement in online brand communities: a solicitation of congruity theory.” Internet Research, 28(1), 23-45.
Islam, T. Attiq, S., Hameed, Z., Khokhar, M.N. ve Sheikh, Z. 2018b. “The impact of self-congruity (symbolic and functional) on the brand hate: A studybased on self-congruity theory.” British Food Journal. 121(1), 71-88.
Ismail, A. R., ve Melewar, T. C. 2015. “Binational study of the impact of brand image, brand personality and brand love on word of mouth: The case of fashion brands in UK and Switzerland.” In Marketing Dynamism & Sustainability: Things Change, Things Stay the Same… (pp. 462-471). Springer, Cham.
Ismail, A.R. ve Spinelli, G. 2012. “Effects of brand love, personality and image on word of mouth The case of fashion brands among young consumers.”Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 16(4), 386- 398.
Jeong, E. ve Jang, S. 2018. “The affective psychological process of self-image congruity and its influences on dining experience.” International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 30(3), 1563-1583.
Kahle, L.R. 1983. “Social Values and Social Change: Adaptation to Life in America”, Praeger, New York.
Kaijasilta, N. 2013. “The Conceptualization of Electronic Word-of-Mouth (EWOM) and Company Practicesto Monitor, Encourage, and Committo EWOM – a Service Industry Perspective.” Master’s Thesis, Aalto University, Department of Management and International Business.
Kaiser, H. F. 1974. “An index of factorial simplicity.”Psychometrika, 39(1), 31-36.
Kang, A. 2015. “Brand Love-Moving Beyond Loyalty An Empirical Investigation of Perceived Brand Love of Indian Consumer.”Arab Economıcs And Business Journal, 10, 90-101.
Kapferer, J.N. 2008. “The new strategic brand management; Creating and sustaining brand equity long term,” Fourth edition, Koganpage Limited, London and Philadelphia.
Karjaluoto, H., Munnukka, J. ve Kiuru, K. 2016. “Brand love and positive word of mouth : the moderating effects of experience and price.”Journal of Product and Brand Management, 25(6).
Karlíček, M. Tomek, I. ve Křížek, M. 2010. “Word-of-Mouth marketing: An integrated model.”Ekonomika a Management, 2010(3), 1-11.
Kaul, S., Khokle, P. ve Koshy, A. 2006. “The value-congruity relationship model.” Research and Publications, Ahmedabad, India: Indian Institute of Management. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/6443550.pdf
Keller, K. L. 1993. “Conceptualizing, Measuring, and Managing Customer-Based Brand Equity.”Journal of Marketing, 57(1), 1-22.
Khalid, N. R., Wel, C. A. C., Mokhtaruddin, S. A. ve Alam, S. S. 2018. “The Influence of Self-Congruity on Purchase Intention for Cosmetic Merchandises.”International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(4), 933-945.
Kim, S., Kim, M. ve Lee, D. 2016. “The Effects of Personality Traits and Congruity on Customer Satisfaction and Brand Loyalty: Evidence from Coffee Shop Customers.”Advances in Hospitality and Leisure (Advances in Hospitality and Leisure, Vol. 12), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 3-33.
Kropp, F., Lavack, A. M., ve Silvera, D. H. 2005. “Values and collective self-esteem as predictors of consumers usceptibility to interpersonal influence among university students. International Marketing Review, 22(1), 7-33.
Kumar, S. (2013). Value Congruity, Identity and Store Image Formation: A Conceptualization of Consumers’ Retail Store Choice Behaviour.”International Journal of Management and Social Sciences Research, 2(11), 23-32.
Langner, T., Bruns, D., Fischer, A. ve Rossiter, J. R. 2016. “Falling in love with brands: A dynamic analysis of the trajectories of brand love.” Marketing Letters, 27(1), 15-26.
Larasati, Y. ve Hananto, A. 2012. “The Role of Value congruity and Consumer Brand Identification toward Development of Brand Commitment and Positive Word of Mouth.” http://ssrn.com/abstract=2200313. doi:10.2139/ssrn.2200313. Erişim Tarihi: 19.03.2020.
Loureiro, S., Gorgus, T. ve Kaufmann, H. 2017. “Antecedents and outcomes of online brand engagement: The role of brand love on enhancing electronic-word-of-mouth.” Online Information Review, 41(7), 985- 1005.
Lu, J. ve Xu, Y. 2015. “Chinese young consumers’ brand loyalty toward sportswear products: a perspective of self-congruity.” Journal of Product & Brand Management, 24(4), 365-376.
Maisam, S. ve Mahsa, R. 2016. “Positive Word of Mouth Marketing: Explaining the Roles of Value Congruity and Brand Love.”Journal of Competitiveness, 8(1), 19-37.
Malik, M.E., Naeem, B. ve Munawar, M. 2012. “Brand Image: Past, Present and Future.”Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, 2(12), 13069-13075.
Martin, W.C. 2017. “Positive Versus Negative Word-Of-Mouth: Effects On Receivers.” Academy of Marketing Studies Journal, 21(2), 1-10.
Nandan, S. 2005. “An exploration of the brand identity–brand image linkage: A communication perspective.” J Brand Manag. 12, 264-278.
Nikhashemi, S. ve Valaei, N. 2018. “The chain of effects from brand personality and functional congruity to stages of brand loyalty: The moderating role of gender.”Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 30(1), 84-105.
Niyomsart, S. ve Khamwon, A. 2016. “Brand Love, Brand Loyalty, and Word Of Mouth: A Case Of Airasia.”Conference of the International Journal of Arts & Sciences, 9(1), 263-268.
Ogba, I.E. ve Tan, Z. 2009. “Exploring the impact of brand image on customer royalty and commitment in China.”Journal of Technology Management in China, 4, 132-144.
Ozbek, V., Kutbay, A. Y., Dogan, O. ve Kulahli, A. 2017. “Antecedents of Brand Love: A Research on Bank Customers.” PressAcademia Procedia, 3(1), 609-619.
Özyer, G. N. 2015. “Marka aşkının marka sadakati ve ağızdan ağıza pazarlamaya etkisi: Pilot bir araştırma.” Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Marmara Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü: İstanbul.
Park, C.W., Jaworski, B.J. ve Maclnnis, D.J. 1986. “Strategic Brand Concept-Image Management.”Journal of Marketing, 50, 135-145.
Pourabedin, Z. ve Migin, M.W. 2015. “Hotel Experience and Positive Electronic Word of Mouth.”International Business Management, 9(4), 596-600.
Purnasari H. ve Yuliando H. 2015. “How relationship quality on customer commitment influences positive e-wom.”Agriculture &Agricultural Science Procedia, 3, 149-153.
Ranjbarian, B., Kazemi, A. ve Borandegi, F. 2013. “Analyzing the Antecedents and Consequences of Brand Love with a Case Study on Apple Cell phone Users.” International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 3(11), 320-329.
Ratchford, B. 2001. “The Economics of Consumer Knowledge.” Journal of Consumer Research, 27 (March), 397-411.
Rather, R., Tehseen, S. ve Parrey, S. 2018. “Promoting customer brand engagement and brand loyalty through customer brand identification and value congruity.” Spanish Journal of Marketing- ESIC, 22(3), 319- 337.
Roberts, K. 2004. “Love Marks: The Future beyond Brands.” Powerhouse Books, New York, NY.
Roy, R. ve Rabbanee, F. 2015. “Antecedents and consequences of self-congruity.” European Journal of Marketing, 49(3/4), 444-466.
Sarıkaya, N. 2007. “Özel Bir Tüketici Grubu Olarak Kadınlar”. Editörler: Ömer Torlak, Remzi Altunışık, Şuayip Özdemir, Yeni Müşteri, Hayat Yayınları: 240, Pazarlama Dizisi: 08, Sayfa: 209‐229.
Sarıkaya, N. ve Altunışık, R. 2011. “Kişisel Bakım” Olgusu ve Kişisel Bakım Ürünlerine Yönelik Tüketici Tutum ve Tercihlerini Etkileyen Faktörler Üzerine Bir Araştırma.” Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi İİBF Dergisi, 6(2), 389-413.
Semadi, I.PY. ve Ariyanti, M. 2018. “The Influence of Brand Experience, Brand Image, and Brand Trust On Brand Loyalty of ABC-CASH.”Asian Journal of Management Sciences & Education, 7(3), 12-23.
Setiawan, P.Y. 2014. “The Effect of e-WOM on Destination Image, Satisfaction and Loyalty.” International Journal of Business and Management Invention, 3(1), 22-29.
Shimp, Terrence A. ve Thomas J. Madden (1988). “Consumer-Object Relations: A Conceptual Framework Based Analogously on Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love.” in Advances in Consumer Research, Michael J. Houston, ed. Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 163–168.
Smith, R. A., White-McNeil, A. ve Ali, F. 2020. “Students’ perceptions and behavior toward on-campus foodservice operations.” International Hospitality Review, 1-16.
Sondoh, S. J. R. 2009. “Brand image, satisfaction, and loyalty among Malaysian female consumers: The moderating effects of personality and dwelling area.” Unpublished doctoral thesis, Universiti Sains Malaysia.
Sondoh, S.L., Omar, M.W., Wahid, N.A., Ismail, I. ve Harun, A. 2007. “The Effect Of Brand Image On Overall Satisfaction and Loyalty Intention in TheContext of Color Cosmetıc.”Asian Academy of Management Journal, 12(1), 83-107.
Srivastava, P. ve Owens, D.L. 2010. “Personality Traits and Their Effect on Brand Commitment: An Empirical Investigation.”The Marketing Management Journal, 20(2), 15-27.
Sternberg, R.J. 1986. “A Triangular Theory of Love.”Psychological Review, 93(2), 119-135.
Suhartanto, D., ve Kandampully, J. 2003. “The role of customer satisfaction and image in gaining customer loyalty in the hotel industry.”Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing, 10(1/2), 1-24.
Sung, Y. ve Campbell, W.K. 2007. “Brand commitment in consumer-brand relationships: An investment model approach.”Brand Management, 17(2), 97-113.
Sweeney, J.C., Soutar, G.N., ve Mazzarol, T. 2005. “Positive and negative word-of-mouth are not necessarily opposites”, Paper Presented at the First International Conference on Word-of-Mouth Marketing, Hamburg, 6-7 October 2005, Brand Science Institute, Hamburg, Germany.
Taylor, D. G., Strutton, D., ve Thompson, K. 2012. “Self-Enhancement as a Motivation for Sharing Online Advertising.”Journal of interactive marketing, 12(2), 28.
Thomson, M., MacInnis, D. J.ve Park, C. W. 2005. “The ties that bind: Measuring the strength of consumers ’emotional attachment to brands.”Journal of Consumer Psychology, 15 (1), 77-91.
Turri, A., Smith, K.H. ve Kemp, E. 2013. “Developing affective brand commitment through social media.”Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 14(3), 201-214.
Tuskej, U., Golob, U., ve Podnar, K. 2013. “The role of consumer-brand identification in building brand relationships.”Journal of Business Research, 66(1), 53-59.
Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Ekonomi Bakanlığı Kozmetik Sektörü Raporu. 2018. “https://ticaret.gov.tr/data/5b87000813b8761450e18d7b/Kozmetik.pdf.” Erişim Tarihi: 14.05.2020.
Türkiye Odalar ve Borsalar Birliği Türkiye Kozmetik ve Temizlik Ürünleri Sanayi Meclisi Sektör Raporu. 2017.“https://www.tobb.org.tr/Documents/yayinlar/2018/T.Kozmetik%20ve%20Temizlik%20%C3%9 Cr%C3%BCnleri%20Sanayi%20Meclis%20Sekt%C3%B6r%20Raporu%202017.pdf.” Erişim Tarihi: 14.05.2020.
Unal, S. ve Aydın, H. 2013. “An investigation on the evaluation of the factor saffecting brand love.” Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 92, 76-85.
Uyar, K., ve Lekesizcan S. F. 2017. “Brand Love and an Application” In: Researches on Science in 21st Century Turkey, 2017, 1, Hasan Arapgirlioğlu, Atilla Atık, Robert L. Elliott & Edward Turgeon (Eds), Gece Kitaplığı, 33, 332-339.
Wang, G. 2002. “Attitudinal Correlates of Brand Commitment: An Empirical Study.”Journal of Relationship Marketing, 1(2), 57-75.
Wang, Y. ve Tsai, C. 2014. “The Relationship between Brand Image and Purchase Intention: Evidencefrom Award Winning Mutual Funds.”The International Journal of Business and Finance Research, 8(2), 27- 40.
Wijaya, B. S. 2011. “Brand erpreneurship: Brand Development-Based Entrepreneurship.” Proceeding 1 st International Conference on Business and Communication (ICBC), Jakarta, Indonesia.
Wijaya, B.S. 2013. “Dimensions of Brand Image: A Conceptual Review from the Perspective of Brand Communication.”EuropeanJournal of Business and Management, 5(31), 55-65.
Wong, K. 2013. “Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) techniques using SmartPLS.”Marketing Bulletin, 24(1), 1-32.
Yaşlıoğlu, M. M. 2017. “Sosyal bilimlerde faktör analizi ve geçerlilik: Keşfedici ve doğrulayıcı faktör analizlerinin kullanılması”. İstanbul Üniversitesi İşletme Fakültesi Dergisi, 46, 74-85.
Zarantonello, L., Formisano, M. ve Grappi, S. 2016. “The relationship between brand love and actual brand performance: Evidence from an international study.”International Marketing Review, 33 (6), 806-824.
Zhang, J.,& Bloemer, J. M. 2008. “The impact of value congruence on consumer-service brand relationships.”Journal of Service Research, 11(2), 161-178.