Mavi-Beyaz Yaka Dönemi Bitti mi? İş Yaşamında Alternatif Yaka Renkleri Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme

Klasik anlamda mavi-beyaz ayrımı ile işletme yazınında yer alan yaka kavramı özellikle son dönemde farklı renklerle ifade edilmeye başlanmıştır. Bu çalışmada, iş yaşamındaki farklılaşan çalışan nitelikleri ve bu nitelikleri tanımlayan yaka kavramının değişen içeriği ve renklerini betimlemek amacıyla işletme yazını temelinde bir bibliyometrik analiz gerçekleştirilmiştir. Tarama kriterleri doğrultusunda 30 adet makale elde edilmiş ve analize dahil edilmiştir. Yazın taraması ve analiz sonucunda, farklı renklerdeki yakaların aslında birbirleri ile geçişli olduğu ve mavi-beyaz yaka şeklindeki ayrımın yeterli olmadığı sonucuna varılmıştır.

Is Blue-White Collar Era Over? An Overview About Alternative Collar Colors in Workplace

Collar term in business literature has been changing recently and started to be expressed with not only traditional white and blue but also many different colors. In this study, to define collars with the new colors depending on differentiated work force qualification, a bibliometric analysis basis on business literature was carried out. Regarding the screening criteria, 30 articles were chosen and analyzed during the study. As a result of the literature review and the analysis, it was found that different color collars are actually transitive with each other, and it was concluded that only bluewhite collar classification is not sufficient.

Kaynakça

Aktan, C. 1998. Bilgi Toplumunun Doğuşu Ve Gelişimi. Can Aktan Http://Www.Canaktan.Org Erişim Tarihi: 10.12.2018.

Aldrich, J. 1982. The Earnings Replacement Rate of Old-Age Benefits in 12 Countries, 1969-80. Social Security Bulletin, November 1982/Vol. 45, No. 11.

Allen, M.T. 2005. Grey-Collar Worker: Organisation Theory In Holocaust Studies. A Journal of Culture And History. 11(1):27-54.

Altimus J.R. ve Tersine, R.J. 1973. Chronological Age and Job Satisfaction: The Young Blue Collar Worker. Academy Of Management Journal, Mar1973, Vol. 16 Issue 1, P53-66. DOI: 10.2307/255042

Aron, R. 1950. Social Structure And The Ruling Class, British Journal Of Sociology. 1.

Ashton. A.H.; Ashton. R.H. and Davis. M.N. 1994. White-collar robotics. In: California Management Review. 37(1):83- 109.

Bain, G.S.; and Price, R.. 1972. Who Is A White Collar Employee, British Journal Of Industrial Relations, November 1972, 10(3):325-339.

Bamberger P.; Sonnenstuhl W. ve Vashdi, D. 2006. Retirement, risky alcohol consumption and drinking problems among blue-collar workers. Journal Of Occupational Health Psychology [J Occup Health Psychol], Issn: 1076-8998, Jan; Vol. 11 (1), pp. 119-34.

Barry, C. 1961. White Collar Employment; Trends, Structure And Characteristics. Monthly Labor Review (Pre1986) Volume: 84 Issue 1.

Bell, D. 1973. The Coming Of Post Industrial Society, New York: Basic Books

Berglind, B.L. and Scales, C.D. 1987. White-Collar Productivity: Seeing Through The Camouflage. Management Review, Jun87, Vol. 76 Issue 6, P41, 6p.

Bunk, S. 1999. How To Manage Knowledge And Gold Collar Workers. The Scientist Journal. 13(3):16-17.

Burns, R.K. 1954. The Comparative Economic Position Of Manual And White-Collar Employees, The Journal Of Business Vol. 27, No. 4, White-Collar Unionism (Oct., 1954), Pp. 257-267.

Carr, D. 2009. Green-Collar Jobs, Market Facing A Difficult Year. Ends Report. 434:38-41.

Cook. A. H. 1972. In: Monthly Labor Review. 95(2):91-92.

Cusimano, J. M. 1995. Turning blue-coller workers into knowledge workers. Training And Development, V49 N8 P47- 49 Aug.

Çetinkaya, Y.D. ve Alkan Ö. M. 2015. Tanzimattan Günümüze Türkiye İşçi Sınıfının Tarihi 1839-2014 Yeni Yaklaşımlar, Yeni Alanlar, Yeni Sorunlar. Tarih Vakfı Yurt Yayınları.

David, H. ve Bigaouette, M.. 1989. BigaouetteInaptitude au travail et prises de retraite chez les ouvriers d'une grande municipalité. Travail Humain. 52(2):131-146.

Davis, T. R. 1991. Information technology and white-collar productivity. Academy of Management Executive, 5 (1), 55- 67. Executive

Deaux K. and Ullman. J. C. 1983. Women Of Steel: Female Blue-Collar Workers In The Basic Steel Industry. New York; Praeger, 1983. X, pp.198.

Edwards, A.M. 1934. The White Collar Workers. Monthly Labor Review, Mar34, Vol. 38 Issue 3, P501-505, 5p. Publisher: Us Department Of Labor.

Elliott, R. F. 1977. The Growth of White-Collar Employment In Great Britain 1951-1971.British Journal Of Industrial Relations, Mar1977, Vol. 15 Issue 1, P39-44.

Ercoşkun, Ö.Y. 2010. Yeşil Yakalı Kavramı ve Türkiye’deki Yeşil Yakalılar. Çağdaş Yerel Yönetimler Dergisi. 19(3):25- 48.

Erdal, L. 2012. Türkiye’de Yenilenebilir Enerji Yatırımları ve İstihdam Yaratma Potansiyeli. Sosyal Ve Beşeri Bilimler Dergisi. 4(1):171-181.

Ersel, B. 2003. Bilgi Çağında Çalışma Ilişkileri ve Beyin Göçü. İzmit: 2. Ulusal Bilgi, Ekonomi Ve Yönetim Kongresi.

Fitzpatrick, S. 1948. The American Catholic Sociological Review, Vol. 9, No. 2 (Jun., 1948), pp. 98-107.

Flexner. J.A. and Ericson. A. 1956. White-Collar Employment And Income, 79 Monthly Lab. Rev. 401.

Frankenhaeuser M.; Lundberg U; Fredrickson. M.; Melin. B.; Martti Tuomisto; Myrsten. A.; Hedman. M.; BergmanLosman B. and Wallin. L. 1989. Stress on and off the job as related to sex and occupational status in white‐collar workers In: Journal Of Organizational Behavior. 10(4):321-346.

Gallie, D. 1996. New Technology and the Class Structure: The Blue Collar/White-Collar Divide Revisited. British Journal Of Sociology, September 1996, 47(3):442-473.

Giddens, A. 1980. The Class Structure of Advanced Societies, London: Hutchinson.

Goldstein, D.H. and Orris, L. 1964. Diseases Of White Collar Workers. Public Health Reports (1896-1970), Vol. 79, No. 11.

Gorz, A. 1973. Socialism And Revolution. Garden City: Anchor Books

Gould, R. E. 1968. Dr. Strangeclass or: How I stopped worrying about the theory and began treating the blue collar worker. Journal Of Contemporary Psychotherapy, September. Vol. 1 Issue: 1 P49-63, 15p.

Harvey D.M., Bosco, S.M. Ve Emanuele, G. 2010. The Impact Of “Green-Collar Workers” On Organizations. Management Research Review. 33(5):499-511.

Hazell, S. 2009. Green Collar Revolution. Alternatives Journal; Waterloo. 35(6):8-11.

Hemlock, D. 2007. Green Revolution. Orlando Sentinel. Http://Innovations.Harvard.Edu Erişim Tarihi: 12.12.2018

Holland, P. J.; Hecker, R. Ve Steen, J. 2002. Human Resource Strategies And Organizational Structure For Managing Gold Collar Workers. Journal Of European Industrial Training. 26(2):72-80.

Hori, S. 1993. Harvard Business Review; Nov-Dec 1993; 71; 6; P157-P172.

Hulme, R. D.; Bevan, R. V. 1975. Harvard Business Review, March 1975, Vol. 53, P104-112,

Hunt, G. 1993. Sex Differences In A Pink-Collar Occupation. Relations Industrielles / Industrial Relations Journal. 48(3):441-460.

Hutchings K., Zhu C., Cooper B.K., Zhang Y. Ve Shao, S. 2009. Perceptions Of The Effectiveness Of Training And Development Of ‘Grey-Collar’ Workers In The People's Republic Of China. Human Resource Development International. 12(3):279-296.

Jenkins. C. and Sherman. B. 1979. The Collapse of Work. Eyre Methuen Press. Hall of Books (Shropshire, United Kingdom).

Johnson D. B. and Stern. J. L. 1969. Why And How Workers Shift From Blue-Collar To White-Collar Jobs, 92 Monthly Lab. Rev. 7.

Johnson, D. B and Stern, J. L 1970. Personnel Journal (Pre-1986); Jun 1970; 49, 000006; Proquest Central Pg. 471.

Kalokerinos E.K., Kjelsaast, K., Bennettst, S. Ve Hippelt C. 2017. Men In Pink Collars: Stereotype Threat And Disengagement Among Male Teachers And Child Protection Workers. European Journal Of Social Psychology. 47:553-565

Kaščák, O. Ve Pupala, B. 2013. Buttoning Up The Gold Collar – The Child In Neoliberal Visions Of Early Education And Care. Human Affairs. 23:319–337.

Koç, Y. 2013. Türkiye’de İşçi Sınıfı ve Sendikacılık (Dünden Bugüne). Kaynak Yayınları.No:693.

Koçak, O. Ve Uygun, B. 2011. Entelektüel Sermayenin Temel Unsuru: Altın Yakalılar. (S. 2764-2773). SaraybosnaBosna Hersek : Uluslararası 9. Bilgi, Ekonomi Ve Yönetim Kongresi Bildirileri.

Kouzmin, A., Korac-Kakabadse, N. Ve Korac-Kakabadse, A. 1999. Globalization And Information Technology: Vanishing Social Contracts, The ``Pink Collar'' Workforce And Public Policy Challenges. Women In Management Review. 14(6):230-251.

Kraut, R.E.; Grambsch, P. 1987. Home-Based White Collar Employment: Lessons From The 1980 Census. Social Forces. Vol. 66 Issue 2, P410.

Kudera, W. 1983. Blue Collar-White Collar: Grey Collar? Zum Sozialen Habitus Von Arbeitern Undangestellten In Der Industrie. Soziale Welt. 34(2):201-227.

Labor Law Journal. 1949. "Whıte Collar" Exemptıon Chart,Nov49, Vol. 1 Issue 2, P144-146. 3p.

Landrum, B.A. 1997. Gold Collar Technicians Essential To Chip Industry In Greater Phoenix. Economic Development Review. 15(4):3-7.

Lane, N. 2000. Female Employment In Sales Organisations: Learning To Manage The Pink Collar Army. Joumal Of Marketing Management. (16):393-416.

Lebowitz. M. A. 2006. Kapital'in Ötesi Marx ve İşçi Sınıfının Politik İktisadı (Çev. Arif Geniş) Phoenix Yayınları. Ankara.

Lewis, H.G. 1939. The Negro Business, Professional, And White Collar Worker, The Journal Of Negro Education Vol. 8, No. 3, The Present And Future Position Of The Negro In The American Social Order (Jul., 1939), Pp. 430- 445 (16 Pages)

Liben, L.S., Bigler, R.S. Ve Krogh H.R. 2001. Pink And Blue Collar Jobs: Children’s Judgments Of Job Status And Job Aspirations In Relation To Sex Of Worker. Journal Of Experimental Child Psychology. 79:346-363.

Ling, S., Raine, A., Yang, Y., Schug, R. A., Portnoy, J. Ve Ho, R.M. 2018. Increased Frontal Lobe Volume As A Neural Correlate Of Gray-Collar Offending. Journal Of Research In Crime And Delinquency. 20(10):1-34.

Lips-Wiersma, M., Wright, S. Ve Dik, B. 2016. Meaningful Work: Differences Among Blue-, Pink-, And White-Collar Occupations. Career Development International Journal. 21(5):534-551.

Malkinson, R; Kushnir, T; Weisberg, E. 1997. Stress management and burnout prevention in female blue-collar workers: Theoretical and practical implications. International Journal Of Stress Management; Jul 1997; 4; 3; P183-P195.

Marszalek, B. 2008. Green-Collar Jobs, Industrial Policy, And A Society With A Future. New Labor Forum. 17(3):31– 37.

Mclaughlin, D.B. 1983. Electronics And The Future Of Work: The Impact On Pink And White Collar Workers. The Annals Of The American Academy Of Political And Social Science. 470:152-162.

Muthuchidambaram. S. 1972. Commitment and Motivation of blue collar workers in İndia. In: Indian Journal Of Industrial Relations. 7(4):569-587.

Nakamura. S. K. and Nakamura M. T. 2000. Increased Risk Of Coronary Heart Disease In Japanese Blue-Collar Workers Occupational Medicine, Volume 50, Issue 1, 1 January.

Pearce Ve Stilwell, 2008. Green-Collar Jobs: Employment Impacts Of Climate Change Policies. Journal Of Australian Political Economy. Review Article: 'Green Collar' Jobs. 62:120-138.

Pennings. J.M. 1970. Work-Value Systems Of White-Collar Workers Administrative Science Quarterly. 15(4):397-405.

Pettinger, L. 2017. Green Collar Work: Conceptualizing And Exploring An Emerging Field Of Work. Sociology Compass. 11:1-13.

Pinderhughes, R. 2006. Green Collar Jobs: Work Force Opportunities In The Growing Green Economy. Race, Poverty & The Environment. Getting Ready For Change:Green Economics And Climate Justice (Summer 2006). 13(1):62- 63.

Punekar. S.D. 1966. Economic And Political Weekly. 1(5):207-208; Sameeksha Trust.

Rachman, D. J. and Levine, M. 1966/67. Journal Of Retailing. Winter66/67, Vol. 42 Issue 4, P5. 10p.

Roe, M.A. 2001. Cultivating The Gold-Collar Worker. Harvard Business Review. May.

Roongrerngsukea, S. Ve Liefooghe, A. 2013. Attracting Gold-Collar Workers: Comparing Organizational Attractiveness And Work-Related Values Across Generations In China, India And Thailand. Asia Pacific Business Review. 19(3):337-355.

Rung, M.C. 1997. Paternalism And Pink Collars: Gender And Federal Employee Relations, 1941-50. The Business History Review. 71(3):381-416.

Sadler, P. 1994. Gold Collar Workers: What Makes Them Play At Their Best?. Personnel Management. 26(4):28-31.

Seppala, P. 2004. International Journal Of Industrial Ergonomics; Jan 2004; 33; 1; P15-P27.

Shear, B.W. 2012. The Green Collar Economy: How One Solution Can Fix Our Two Biggest Problems. Review Of Radical Political Economics; 44(1):116-120.

Silberman, C. E. 1965. Management Review, Mar65, Vol. 54 Issue 3, P33, 9p. Publisher: American Management Association International.

Singhvi. S. S. 1993. National Productivity Review (Executive Enterprises Publications Co.). Autumn1993, Vol. 12 Issue 4, P463. 7p.

Srivastava A.K.ve Sinha. M. M. 1975. Morale of the Blue-Collar Workers in Relation to Different Degrees of Job Anxiety In: Indian Journal Of Industrial Relations. 10(3):371-378.

Sutherland, E. 1940. White Collar Criminality, American Sociological Review, 5(1):1-12.

Şener, M. 2016. Kadınlar Altın Yaka Takabilir Mi? Iş Hayatında Eğitimli Kadınlar Için Iş Hayatı. Sosyoloji Dergisi. 36:13–40.

Takala, J.; Suwansaranyu, U. and Phusavat, K. 2006. A Proposed White‐Collar Workforce Performance Measurement Framework. Industrial Management and Data Systems. Vol. 106 Issue: 5, Pp.644-662. Taylor, R. J. 1995. Canada And The World Backgrounder; Waterloo Vol. 60, Iss. 5, (Mar 1995).

Tom. C. 1986. The Gold Collar Worker. Southern Economic Journal. 52(4):1196-1187.

Unep. 2008. Green Jobs: Towards Decent Work In A Sustainable, Lowcarbon. United Nations Environment Program.

Walker, C.M. 1996. Financial management, coping and debt in households under financial strain. Journal of Economic Psychology, 17, 789-807.

Weaver. C.N. 1975. Job Preferences Of White Collar And Blue Collar Workers. The Academy Of Management Journal. 18(1):167-175; Academy Of Management.

Weber, M. 2003. Sosyoloji Yazıları. Çev: T. Parla, Istanbul Iletişim Yayınları.

Wickham, J. 1987. Changing White Collar Work: The Office Of The Future In Perspective Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review. 76(303):316-325;

Williams, C.L. 1988/90. Blue, White and Pink Collar Workers In Australia: Technicians, Bankemployees And Flight Attendants. Sociology, 24(2):300-301Allen & Unwin, Sydney.

Williams, C.L. 1993. Doing Women’s Work – Men In Nontraditional Occupations, Univercity Of Texas-Austin, Usa.

Wonacott, M. E. 2007. Gold-Collar Workers. Eric Digest.

Wright, M.C. 1951. White Collar: The American Middle Classes, New York: Oxford University Pres.

Yüksel, Y. 2010. Esnek Kapitalizm Ve Altın Yakalı Çalışanlar. İş Ahlakı Dergisi. Turkish Journal Of Business Ethics. 3(5): 97-117.

Kaynak Göster