The leafhopper Empoasca decipiens Paoli is a widespread polyphagous insect pest of several major crops especially bean in Iran and many other parts of the world. Population fluctuation and thermal requirement for development of E. decipiens was studied on four bean species including Phaseolus vulgaris L. (var. Talash), P. lunatus L. (var. Sadaf), P. calcaratus Roxb. (var. Goli) and Vigna sinensis L. (var. Parastoo) in Tehran region, Iran during 2004-2005. In both years, the highest population density of the leafhopper was observed on V. sinensis and on all host plants species, this density increased with increasing temperature and decreasing relative humidity. During two years, the highest and lowest population density of the pest was in early September and late October, respectively. Significantly, the highest and lowest rate of thermal constant related to overall nymph period (max: 288.95; min: 197.43 Degree-days) and overall immature period (max: 473.75; min: 384.05 Degree-days) was recorded on P. calcaratus and V. sinensis, respectively, in which the shortest development time was recorded on V. sinensis (11.59 days for overall nymph and 22.58 days for overall immature). It could be concluded that the host-plant species influence population fluctuation, development time and thermal requirement for development of immature stages of E. decipiens. Thermal requirements can be used to predict the occurrence, development and population dynamics of E. decipiens on different bean species.
Ammar, E. D., Nahal, E. L., El-Bolok, A. K. M., Nahal, M. M., Bolok, A. K. M., Bolok, M. M. E. L., 1977, Fluctuations of population densities of Empoasca decipiens paoli and Balctutha hortensis Lindb at Giza, Egypt (Homoptera, Cicadellidace). Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d’Egypte, 61:245-255.
Backus, E. A., Serrano, M. S., Ranger, C. M., 2005, Mechanism of hopperburn: an overview of insect taxonomy, behavior and physiology. Annual Review of Entomology, 50: 125-151.
Broersma, D. B., Bernard, R. L., Luckmann, W. H., 1972, Some effects of soybean pubescence on populations of the potato leafhopper. Journal of Economic Entomology, 65: 78-82.
Delong, D. M., 1928, Some observations upon the biology and control of the potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae Harris). Journal of Economic Entomology, 21: 183-188.
Ebadah, I. M. A. 2002, Population fluctuations and diurnal activity of the leafhopper, Empoasca decipiens on some summer crops in kalubia Governorate. Egypt Bulletin of Agriculture Cairo University, 53: 653-670.
El-Saadany, G., Abdel-Fattan, M. L., Saadany, G. E. L., Abdel, M. L., 1976, Fluctuations of population densities of three homopterous pests, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), Aphis gossypii Glover and Empoasca decipiens Paoli, attacking potato plants in Egypt. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Egypt, 60: 389-394.
Fenton, F. A., Hartzell, A., 1923, Bionomics and control of the potato leafhopper, Empoasca mali Le Baron. Agricultural Experiment Station, Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts. Research Bulletin, 78: 377-440.
Gencsoylu, I., Yalcin, I., 2004, The effect of different tillage systems on cotton pests and predators in cotton fields. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 3: 39-44.
Gilbert, N., Raworth, D. A., 1996, Insect and temperature, a general theory. Canadian Entomologist, 128: 1-3.
Haghani, M., Fathipour, Y., Talebi, A. A., Baniameri, V., 2006, Comparative demography of Liriomyza sativae (Diptera, Agromyzidae) on cucumber at seven constant temperatures. Insect Science, 13: 477-483.
Haghani, M., Fathipour, Y., Talebi, A. A., Baniameri, V., 2007, Temperature- dependent development of Diglyphus isaea (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) on Liriomyza sativae (Diptera, Agromyzidae) on cucumber. Journal of Pest Sciences, 80: 71-77.
Jervis, M. A., Copland, M. J. W., 1996, The Life Cycle.In: Jervis, M., Kidd, N., (Eds.). Insect Natural Enemies. Practical Approaches to Theire Study and Evaluation. Chapman and Hall, London, 63-161.
Kouskolekas, C., Decker, G. C., 1966, The effect of temperature on the rate of development of the potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Homoptera, Cicadellidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 59: 292-295.
Lavigne, R. J., Campion, M. K., 2001, The effect of ecosystem stress on the abundance and biomass of leafhoppers (Homoptera, Cicadellidae) on the short-grass prairie. Journal of the Entomological Research Society, 3: 5-16.
Mahmood, T., Hussain, S. I., Khokhar, K. M., Jeelani, G., Ahmad, M., 2002, Population dynamic of the leafhopper, Amarasca biguttata on brinjal and effects of abiotic factors on its dynamics. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 1: 403-404.
Martinson, T. E., Dennehy, T. J., 1995, Influence of temperature-driven phenology and photoperiodic induction of reproductive diapause on population dymamics of Erythroneura comes (Homoptera, Cicadellidae). Environmental Entomology, 24: 1504-1514.
Minitab, 2000, Minitab users Guide, version 13.1. Minitab Ltd, UK.
Naseri, B., Fathipour, Y., Talebi, A. A., 2007, Seasonal parasitism of Empoasca decipiens (Homoptera, Cicadellidae) by Anagrus atomus (Hymenoptera, Mymaridae) in Tehran area). Applied Entomology and Phytopathology, 75 (1), (in Persian) (in press).
Rassoulain, G. R., Sardarbandeh, H., Kharazi-Pakdel, A., 2005, Study of soybean leafhoppers fauna and an investigation on biology of dominant species Empoasca decipiens Paoli in Karaj area. Communication Agricultural Applied Biological Science, 70: 671-675.
Raupach, K., Borgemeister, C., Hommes, M., Poehling, H. M., Setamou, M., 2002, Effect of temperature and host plants on the bionomics of Empoasca decipiens (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Crop Protection, 21: 113-119.
Ring, D. R., Harris, M. K., Jackman, J. A., Henson J. L., 1983, A Fortran Computer Program for Determining Start Date and Base Temperature for Degree-Day Models, The Texas Agricultural Experiment Station Bull Mp-1537, Texas.
Robbins, J. C., Daugherty, D. M., 1969, Incidence and ovipostition of potato leafhopper on soybean of different pubescent types. Proc. N. Cent. Br. Entomological Society of America, 24: 35-36.
Roy, M., Brodeur, J., Cloutier, C., 2003, Effect of temperature on intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) of a coccinellid and its spider mite prey. Biological Control, 48: 57-72.
Umesh, C., Rajak, D. C., 2004, Studies on insect pests on urd bean (Vigna mungo). Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 12: 213-214.
Worner, S. P., 1992, Performance of phenological models under variable temperature regimes: consequence of the kaufman or rate summation effect. Environmental Entomology, 21: 689-699.