Effects of Parasitism and Envenomation by Pimpla turionellae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) on Hemolymph Free Amino Acids of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

The effects of dose-dependent envenomation by and parasitization of Pimpla turionellae Linnaeus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) on the ratio of hemolymph free amino acids of the host species Galleria mellonella Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) pupae and larvae were investigated. Of the seventeen different free amino acids detected in the hemolymph of host pupae and larvae by high performance liquid chromatography, the ratio of free amino acids from parasitized and envenomated host pupae did not differ much when compared with those of unparasitized, null- or PBS-injected controls at different time points post-treatments. The exceptions to this trend were an increase in parasitized host pupae for glutamic acid with regard to other experimental groups at 4 and 8 h and a decrease in parasitized host pupae for leucine with regard to 0.01 and 0.05 VRE at 24 h post-treatments. In contrast to pupae, hemolypmh free amino acids of G. mellonella larvae differed upon venom injection among treatments and at different time points post-treatments. The ratios of alanine and leucine at 8 h and glutamic acid, serine, glycine+glutamine, valine, methionine, and phenylalanine at 24 h post-treatments differed from those of controls in treatment groups. However, there appeared no changes in the ratio of hemolypmh free amino acids in host larvae at 4 h post-treatments. Our study indicated that parasitism and experimental envenomation of G. mellonella by wasps resulted in different effects in the quantity of free amino acids depending on host developmental stage

Kaynakça

Assar, A. A., Abo El-Mahasen, M. M., Khalil, M. E., Mahmoud, S. H., 2010, Biochemical effects of some insect growth regulators on the house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae). Egyptian Academic Journal of Biological Sciences, 2: 33-44.

Atmowidjojo, A. H., Erickson, E. H., Wheeler, D. E., Cohen, A. C., 1999, Regulation of hemolymph osmolality in feral and domestic honeybees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 122A: 227-233.

Bischof, C., Ortel, J., 1996, The effects of parasitism by Glyptapanteles liparidis (Braconidae: Hymenoptera)

on the hemolymph and total body composition of gypsy moth larvae (Lymantria dispar, Lymantriidae: Lepidoptera). Parasitology Research, 82: 687-692.

Chang, C. L., 2004, Effect of amino acids on larvae and adults of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 97: 529-535.

Chen, C. P., 1985, Amino Acid and Protein Metabolism. In: Kerkut, G. A., Gilbert, L. I. (Eds.). Comprehensive

Insect Physiology Biochemistry and Pharmacology. Pergamon Press, Oxford, 177-199.

Consoli, F. L., Vinson, S. B., 2004, Host regulation and the embryonic development of the endoparasitoid Toxoneuron nigriceps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B. 137: 463-473.

Crailsheim, K., Leonhard, B., 1997, Amino acids in honeybee worker haemolymph. Amino Acids, 13: 141-153.

Er, A., Uçkan, F., Rivers, D. B., Ergin, E., Sak, O., 2010, Effects of parasitization and envenomation by the endoparasitic wasp Pimpla turionellae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) on hemocyte numbers, morphology, and viability of its host Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 103: 273-282.

Er, A., Uçkan, F., Rivers, D. B., Sak, O., 2011, Cytotoxic effects of parasitism and application of venom from the endoparasitoid Pimpla turionellae on hemocytes of the host Galleria mellonella. Journal of Applied Entomoogy, 135: 225-236.

Ergin, E., Uçkan, F., Rivers, D. B., Sak, O., 2006, In vivo and in vitro activity of venom from the endoparasitic wasp Pimpla turionellae (L.) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, 61: 87-97.

Ergin, E., Uçkan, F., Rivers, D. B., 2007, Biochemical Characterization and Mode of Action of Venom From the Endoparasitoid Wasp Pimpla turionellae. In: Rivers, D., Yoder, J. (Eds.). Recent Advances in the Biochemistry, Toxicity, and Mode of Action of Parasitic Wasp Venoms. Research Signpost, Kerala, India, 129-160.

Ergin, E., H. Altuntaş, F. Uçkan, 2013, Effects of parasitization and envenomation by the endoparasitic wasp Pimpla turionellae L. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) on hemolymph protein profile of its host Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). BioDiCon 6(1): 62-70.

Florkin, M., Jeuniaux, C. H., 1974, Hemolymph: Composition. In: Rockstein, M. (Ed.). The Physiology of Insecta. Acedemic Press, Newyork, 255-307.

Hanzal, R., Jegerov, A., 1991, Changes in free amino acid composition in hemolymph of larvae of the wax moth Galleria mellonella L. during cold acclimation. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 100A: 957-962.

Kansu, I. A., Uğur, A., 1984, Pimpla turionellae (L.) (Hym., Ichneumonidae) ile konukçusu bazı Lepidopter pupaları arasındaki biyolojik ilişkiler üzerinde araştırmalar. Doğa Bilim Dergisi, 8: 160-173.

Kilby, B. A., Neville, E., 1957, Amino-acid metabolism in locust tissues. The Journal of Experimental Biolology, 34: 276-289.

Klowden, M. J., 2007, Physiological Systems in Insects. Academic Press, 688 p.

Kunkel, J. G., Grossniklaus-Burgin, C., Karpells, S. T., Lanzrein, B., 1990, Arylphorin of Trichoplusia ni: characterization and parasite induced precocious increase in titre. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, 13: 117-125.

Lawrence, P. O., 1990, The biochemical and physiological effects of insect hosts on the development and ecology of their insect parasites: an overview. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, 13: 217-228.

Nakamatsu, Y., Gyotoku, Y., Tanaka, T., 2001, The endoparasitoid Cotesia kariyai (Ck) regulates the growth and metabolic efficiency of Pseudaletia separata larvae by venom and Ck polydnavirus. Journal of Insect Physiology, 47: 573-584.

Nath, B. S., Suresh, A., Varma, B. M., Kumar, R. P. S., 1997, Changes in protein metabolism in hemolymph and fat body of the silkworm, Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) in response to organophosphorus insecticides toxicity. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 36: 169-173.

Pennacchio, F., Fanti, P., Falabella, P., Digilio, M. C., Bisaccia, F., Tremblay, E., 1999, Development and nutrition of the braconid waspi Aphidius ervi in aposymbiotic host aphids. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, 40: 53-63.

Punzo, F., 1990, The hemolymph composition and neurochemistry of the spider wasp, Pepsis formosa (Say) (Hymenoptera, Pompilidae). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 96A: 341-345.

Richards, E. H., Edwards, J. P., 1999, Parasitism of Lacanobia oleracea (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) by the ectoparasitoid wasp Eulophus pennicornis, results in the appearance of a 27 kDa parasitism-specific protein in host plasma. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 29: 557-569.

Sak, O., Ergin, E., Uçkan, F., Rivers, D. B., Er, A., 2011, Changes in the hemolymph total protein of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) after parasitism and envenomation by Pimpla turionellae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Turkish Journal of Biology, 35: 425-432.

Thompson, S. N., Lee, R. W. K., 1993, Metabolic fate of alanine in an insect, Manduca sexta: effects of starvation and parasitism. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1157: 259-293.

Thompson, S. N., Lee, R. W. K., 1994, Glucose metabolism in an insect, Manduca sexta, and effects of parasitism. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1200: 322-330.

Uçkan, F., Ergin, E., 2002, Effect of host diet on the immature developmental time, fecundity, sex ratio, adult longevity, and size of Apanteles galleriae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Environmental Entomology, 31: 168-171.

Uçkan, F., Sinan, S., Savaşçı, Ş., Ergin, E., 2004, Determination of venom components from the endoparasitoid wasp Pimpla turionellae L. (Hymenoptera; Ichneumonidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 97: 775-780.

Uçkan, F., Ergin, E., Rivers, D. B., Gençer, N., 2006, Age and diet influence the compositon of venom from the endoparasitic wasp Pimpla turionellae L. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, 63: 177-187.

Uçkan, F., Er, A., Ergin, E., 2010, Levels of encapsulation and melanization in Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) parasitized and envenomated by Pimpla turionellae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 134: 718-726.

Vilasoa-Martínez, M., López-Hernández, J., Lage-Yusty, M. A., 2007, Protein and amino acid contents in the crab, Chionoecetes opilio. Food Chemistry, 103: 1330-1336.

Zupko, K., Sklan, D., Lensky, Y., 1993, Proteins of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) body surface and exocrine glands. Journal of Insect Physiology, 39: 41-46.

Kaynak Göster

488 166

Arşiv
Sayıdaki Diğer Makaleler

Molecular Characterization of Iranian Encarsia formosa Gahan Populations with Natural Incidence of Wolbachia Infection

Somayeh FATTAH-HOSSEINI, Javad KARIMI, Hossein ALLAHYARI

Structure of the Male Reproductive System and Spermatogenesis of Codophila varia (Fabricius, 1787) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) by Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy

NURCAN ÖZYURT KOÇAKOĞLU, SELAMİ CANDAN, Zekiye SULUDERE

Rearing the Pine Sawyer Monochamus galloprovincialis (Olivier, 1795) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on Artificial Diets

Ricardo PETERSEN SILVA, Pedro NAVES, Edmundo SOUSA, Juli PUJADE VILLAR

Forficulidae Fauna of Olive Orchards in the Southeastern Anatolia and Eastern Mediterranean Regions of Turkey (Dermaptera)

GÜLAY KAÇAR, Masaru NISHIKAWA

Effects of Parasitism and Envenomation by Pimpla turionellae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) on Hemolymph Free Amino Acids of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

OLGA SAK, FEVZİ UÇKAN, Ekrem ERGİN, HÜLYA ALTUNTAŞ, AYLİN ER

Spring Fauna of Ceutorhynchinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Weevils from the Southeast of Mediterranean Turkey

LEVENT GÜLTEKİN

New Records of Noctuid Moths (Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Xylenini) from Iran

Shamsi FEIZPOOR, Asghar SHIRVANI

Taxonomic Significance of Male Supra-anal Plate, Cerci and Subgenital Plate in the Classification of Indian Pyrgomorphidae (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphoidea)

Hirdesh KUMAR, Mohd. Kamil USMANI, Reenu KUMARI

Response of Tabanidae (Diptera) Species to Malaise Traps Baited with 1-octan-3-ol and 4-methylphenol

FERHAT ALTUNSOY, Mehmet Yakup AFACAN