Comparative bioactivity of three Khaya species (Meliaceae) against Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

The efficacies of crude extracts of the stem bark of Khaya grandifoliola; K. senegalensis and K. nyasica (Meliaceae), collected within the same Nigerian ecological zone, at 0, 250, 500 and 1000 ppm were investigated as cowpea protectants against Cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius) under laboratory conditions at 27 + 2 oC temperature and 77 + 8% relative humidity. All Khaya extracts at 250 -1000ppm significantly reduced the oviposition of C. maculatus in treated cowpea seeds. Seeds treated with extract of K. grandifoliola had the least mean number of eggs (75.5) laid on them compared with the control (310.00). Similarly, all Khaya extracts at 500-1000ppm caused significant reduction in reproductive efficiency of C. maculatus, and the lowest significant reproductive efficiency (47.9%) was recorded in extract of K. grandifoliola at 1000ppm concentration. When topically applied, significant mortalities in cowpea bruchid adults were observed at 1000ppm concentration of K. grandifoliola and K. nyasica extracts. The body weight of emerged F1 adults from seeds treated with the three Khaya species were not found to be significantly different.

Kaynakça

Abbott, W. S., 1925, A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. Journal of Economic Entomology, 18: 265-267.

Adedire, G. O., Ajayi, O. E., 2003, Potential of Sandbox, Hura crepitans L., seed oil for protection of cowpea seeds from Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Colcoptera:Bruchudae) infestation. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 110 (6): 602-610.

Adedire, C. O., Akinneye, J. O., 2004, Biological activity of tree marigold, Tithonia diversifolia, on cowpea seed bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Annals of Applied Biology, 144:185-189.

Ahmed, S. M., Ahmad, A., 1992, Efficacy of some indigenous plant as pulse protectants against Callosobruchus chinensis. International Pest Control, 32 (2): 54-56.

Arnason, J. T., Philogene, B. J. R., Donskow, N., Kubo, I., 1987, Limonoids from Meliaceae and Rutaceae reduce feeding, growth and development of Ostrinia nubilalis. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 43:221-226.

Bamaiyi, L. J., Ndams, W. A., Toro, W. A., Odekina, S., 2007, Laboratory evaluation of Mahogany (Khaya senegalensis (Desv.) seed oil nd sedd powder for the control of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Colcoptera: Bruchudae) on stored cowpea. Journal of Entomology, 4(3): 237-242.

Caswell, G. H., Akibu, S., 1980, The use of pirimiphos-methyl to control bruchids attacking selected varieties of stored cowpea. Tropical Grain Legume Bulletin, 17/18: 9-11.

Champagne, D. E., Kowl, O., Isman, M. B., Scudder, G. G. E., Towers, G. H.N., 1992, Biological activity of limonoids from the Rutales. Phytochemistry, 31: 377-294.

Collins, J. P., Lambkin, T. M., Bridgeman, B.W., Pulvirenti, C, 1993, Resistance to grain-protectant insecticides in Queensland, Australia. Journal of Economic Entomology, 86(2): 239-245.

Don-Pedro, K. N., 1989, Mode of action of fixed oils against egg of Callosobruchus maculatus (R). Pesticide Science, 26:107-115.

Duncan, D. B., 1955, Multiple range and multiple F-tests. Biometrics, 11: 25-40.

Dupreiz, H., Leener, P., 1989, African garden and orchards: growing vegetables and fruits. Macmillan Publications Limited, 140-144.

El-Aswad, A. F., Abdelgaleil, S. A. M., Nakatani, M., 2003, Feeding deterent and growth inhibitory properties of limonoids from Khaya senegalensis against the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis.Pest Management Science, 60(2): 199-203.

Ewete, F. K., Alamu, O. T., 1999, Extracts of three mahogany species as grain protectants against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Journal of Tropical Forest Resources,15(1): 22-29.

Ewete, F. K., Bamigbola, K. A., 1998, Effects of three natural product extracts as toxicant against Callosobruchus maculatusF. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) infesting Bambara groundnut. Journal of Tropical Forest Resources, 14(1): 1-8.

Ewete, F. K., Arnason, J. T., parson, J., Philogene, B. J. R., 1996, Biological activity of extracts from traditionally used Nigerian Plants against the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 80: 531-537.

FAO, 1992, Pesticides residues in food. Report 116, 146.

Gwinner, J., Harnish, R., Much, O., 1996, Manual on the post-harvest protection project. Eschborn; Germany G.T.Z., 334.

Ibrahim, J. A., Ayodele, E. A., Jegede, A. I., Kunle, Y. R, 2006, Comparative studies on Khaya A. Juss (Meliaceae) in Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 5(11): 1154-1160.

Isman, M. B., 1999, Pesticides based on plant essential oils. Pesticide Outlook, 10 (2): 68- 72.

Kabaru, J. M., Gichia, L., 2001, Isecticidal activity of extracts derived from different parts of the mangrove tree, Rhizophora mucronata (Rhizophoraceae) Lam. Against three arthropods. African Journal of Science and Technology, 2(2): 44-49.

Lale, N. E. S., 2001, The impact of storage insect pest on post-harvest losses and their management in the Nigerian agricultural system.- A symposium paper presented at the 32nd Annual Conference of the Entomological Society of Nigeria held at National Library, Kaduna,, 8 -11 . October, 2001,25.

Lale, N. E. S., Alaga, K. A., 1999. Exploring the insecticidal, larvicidal and repellent properties of Piper guineense Schum.et Thonn. Seed oil for the control of rust-red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) in stored pearl millet Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 108(3): 305-313.

Lale, N.E.S., Mustapha, A., 2000, Potential of combining neem (Azadirachta indica)A. Juss) seed oil with varietal resistance for the management of cowpea bruchid, Callosbruchus maculatus (F). Journal of Stored Product Research, 36:215-222.

Mbata, G.N., 1992, Studies on the compartive susceptibility of varieties of bambara groundnuts to infestations by Callosobruchus maculatus. Tropical Science, 32: 47-51.

Ofuya, T., Lagunju, S., 1998, Potential of using trona (urgo) in the control of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) infesting cowpea seeds in Nigeria. Entomon, 23:219-225.

Ogunleye, R. R, 2004, Effects of Zanthoxylum dusts and extract on fecundity, fertility and developmental periods of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) Coleoptera: Bruchidae. Bioscience Research Communications, 16(1): 53-57.

Omotoso, O. T., Ogunleye, R. R, 2006, Insecticidal and antiovipositional properties of some aromatic medicinal plants, Euginial caryophyllus, Eucalyptus camldulensis, Xylopia aethiopica andBryophyllum pinnatus against cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculate s (R). Ultra Science, 18(2): 181-186.

Oparaeke, A. M, Daria, V. S., 2005, Toxicity of some plant powders to Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) on stored cowpea. Nigeria Journal of Entomology, 22: 76-83.

Rahman, A., Talukder, F. A., 2006, Bioefficacy of some plant derivatives that protect grain against the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. Journal of Insect Science, 6:03, available online: insectscience.org/6.03.

Trease, G. E., Evans, W. C, 1978, Pharmacognosy. Bailliere Tindaall Cascell and Collier Macmillan Publishers Ltd, UK., 746.

Kaynak Göster