Objective: Thyroid abnormalities are common in obese children. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and to determine how circulating thyroid hormone concentrations correlate with anthropometrics in Danish lean and obese children and adolescents.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we included 3006 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, from the Registry of the Danish Childhood Obesity Biobank. The overweight/obese group (n=1796) consisted of study participants with a body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) ≥1.28. The control group (n=1210) comprised lean children with a BMI SDS
1. Acheson K, Jéquier E, Burger A, Danforth E Jr. Thyroid hormones and thermogenesis: the metabolic cost of food and exercise. Metabolism 1984;33:262-265.
2. Danforth E Jr, Burger A. The role of thyroid hormones in the control of energy expenditure. Clin Endocrinol Metab 1984;13:581-595.
3. Radhakishun NN, van Vliet M, von Rosenstiel IA, Weijer O, Beijnen JH, Brandjes DP, Diamant M. Increasing thyroid-stimulating hormone is associated with impaired glucose metabolism in euthyroid obese children and adolescents. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2013;26:531-537.
4. Eliakim A, Barzilai M, Wolach B, Nemet D. Should we treat elevated thyroid stimulating hormone levels in obese children and adolescents? Int J Pediatr Obes 2006;1:217-221.
5. Stichel HD, I’Allemand D, Grüters A. Thyroid function and obesity in children and adolescents. Horm Res 2000;54:14-19.
6. Reinehr T, Andler W. Thyroid hormones before and after weight loss in obesity. Arch Dis Child 2002;87:320-323.
7. Marwaha RK, Tandon N, Garg MK, Ganie MA, Narang A, Mehan N, Bhadra K. Impact of body mass index on thyroid functions in Indian children. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2013;79:424-428. Epub 2013 May 11
8. de Moura Souza A, Sichieri R. Association between serum TSH concentration within the normal range and adiposity. Eur J Endocrinol 2011;165:11-15. Epub 2011 May 4
9. Ghergherehchi R, Hazhir N. Thyroid hormonal status among children with obesity. Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab 2015;6:51-55.
10. Reinehr T, de Sousa G, Andler W. Hyperthyrotropinemia in obese children is reversible after weight loss and is not related to lipids. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006;91:3088-3091. Epub 2006 May 9
11. Reinehr T, Isa A, de Sousa G, Dieffenbach R, Andler W. Thyroid hormones and their relation to weight status. Horm Res 2008;70:51- 57. Epub 2008 May 21
12. Shalitin S, Yackobovitch-Gavan M, Phillip M. Prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in obese children and adolescents before and after weight reduction and its relation to other metabolic parameters. Horm Res 2009;71:155-161. Epub 2009 Feb 3
13. Liu D, Jiang F, Shan Z, Wang B, Wang J, Lai Y, Chen Y, Li M, Liu H, Li C, Xue H, Li N, Yu J, Shi L, Bai X, Hou X, Zhu L, Lu L, Wang S, Xing Q, Teng W. A cross-sectional survey of relationship between serum TSH level and blood pressure. J Hum Hypertens 2010;24:134-138. Epub 2009 Jun 25
14. Aypak C, Türedi O, Yüce A, Görpelioğlu S. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level in nutritionally obese children and metabolic co-morbidity. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2013;26:703-718.
15. Mokha JS, Srinivasan SR, Dasmahapatra P, Fernandez C, Chen W, Xu J, Berenson GS. Utility of waist-to-height ratio in assessing the status of central obesity and related cardiometabolic risk profile among normal weight and overweight/obese children: the Bogalusa Heart Study. BMC Pediatr 2010;10:73.
16. De Pergola G, Ciampolillo A, Paolotti S, Trerotoli P, Giorgino R. Free triiodothyronine and thyroid stimulating hormone are directly associated with waist circumference, independently of insulin resistance, metabolic parameters and blood pressure in overweight and obese women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2007;67:265-269. Epub 2007 Jun 4
17. Svare A, Nilsen TIL, Bjøro T, Asvold BO, Langhammer A. Serum TSH related to measures of body mass: longitudinal data from the HUNT Study, Norway. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2011;74:769-775.
18. Srinivasan SR, Wang R, Chen W, Wei CY, Xu J, Berenson GS. Utility of waist-to-height ratio in detecting central obesity and related adverse cardiovascular risk profile among normal weight younger adults (from the Bogalusa Heart Study). Am J Cardiol 2009;104:721-724. Epub 2009 Jun 24
19. Hara M, Saitou E, Iwata F, Okada T, Harada K. Waist-to-height ratio is the best predictor of cardiovascular disease risk faactors in Japanese schoolchildren. J Atheroscler Tromb 2002;9:127-132.
20. Nysom K, Mølgaard C, Hutchings B, Michaelsen KF. Body mass index of 0 to 45-y-old Danes: reference values and comparison with published European reference values. Int J Obes 2001;25:177-184.
21. Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. BMJ 2000;320:1240-1243.
22. Dong BJ. How medications affect thyroid function. West J Med 2000;172:102-106.
23. Hollowell JG, Staehling NW, Flanders WD, Hannon WH, Gunter EW, Spencer CA, Braverman LE. Serum TSH, T(4), and thyroid antibodies in the United States Population (1988 to 1994): National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87:489-499.
24. Surks MI, Ortiz E, Daniels GH, Sawin CT, Col NF, Cobin RH, Franklyn JA, Hershman JM, Burman KD, Denka MA, Gorman C, Cooper RS, Weissman NJ. Subclinical thyroid disease: scientific review and guidelines for diagnosis and management. JAMA 2004;291:228-238.
25. Cole TJ, Green PJ. Smoothing reference centile curves: the LMS method and penalized likelihood. Stat Med 1992;11:1305-1319.
26. Marshall WA, Tanner JM. Variations in the pattern of pubertal changes in boys. Arch Dis Child 1970;45:13-23.
27. Marshall WA, Tanner JM. Variations in pattern of pubertal changes in girls. Arch Dis Child 1969;44:291-303.
28. Elmlinger MW, Kühnel W, Lambrecht HG, Ranke MB. Reference intervals from birth to adulthood for serum thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), free T3, free T4, thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) and thyrotropin (TSH). Clin Chem Lab Med 2001;39:973-979.
29. Pacifico L, Anania C, Ferraro F, Andreoli GM, Chiesa C. Thyroid function in childhood obesity and metabolic comorbidity. Clin Chim Acta 2012;413:396-405. Epub 2011 Nov 27
30. Reinehr T. Obesity and thyroid function. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2010;316:165-171. Epub 2009 Jun 18
31. Rotondi M, Leporati P, La Manna A, Pirali B, Mondello T, Fonte R, Magri F, Chiovato L. Raised serum TSH levels in patients with morbid obesity: is it enough to diagnose subclinical hypothyroidism? Eur J Endocrinol 2009;160:403-408. Epub 2008 Dec 10
32. Bastemir M, Akin F, Alkis E, Kaptanoglu B. Obesity is associated with increased serum TSH level, independent of thyroid function. Swiss Med Wkly 2007;137:431-434.
33. Sorisky A, Bell A, Gagnon A. TSH receptor in adipose cells. Horm Metab Res 2000;32:468-474.
34. Nillni E, Vaslet C, Harris M, Hollenberg A, Bjørbæk C, Flier JS. Leptin regulates prothyrotropin-releasing hormone biosynthesis. Evidence for direct and indirect pathways. J Biol Chem 2000;275:36124-36133.
35. Grandone A, Santoro N, Coppola F, Calabrò P, Perrone L, Del Giudice EM. Thyroid function derangement and childhood obesity : an Italian experience. BMC Endocr Disord 2010;10:8.
36. Hall DM, Cole TJ. What use is the BMI? Arch Dis Child 2006;91:283-286.
37. Lemieux S, Prud’homme D, Bouchard C, Tremblay A, Després JP. Sex differences in the relation of visceral adipose tissue accumulation to total body fatness. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;58:463-467.