Objective: Nesfatin-1, an anorexigenic neuropeptide, is expressed mainly in the central nervous system and in some peripheral tissues. The role of nesfatin-1 in energy balance has been investigated. Despite the suggestion of a role for nesfatin-1 in reproductive function, data are limited on the role of nesfatin-1 in human puberty. Methods: The aim of this study was to investigate the following: i) the role of nesfatin-1 in puberty, and ii) relationship between nesfatin-1 and anthropometric measurements and gonadotropin levels in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty (CPP). Twenty-four girls with CPP (7.68±1.02 years) and 20 female, prepubertal, healthy controls (7.48±0.88 years) were enrolled in the study. All patients with CPP were treated by the intramuscular administration of leuprolide acetate at a daily dose of 3.75 mg for 28 days. Nesfatin-1 was measured before and during treatment. Results: There was no difference in serum nesfatin-1 levels in girls with CPP and healthy controls [5.67 (2.5-20.6) mmol/L and 5.75 (2.51- 9.64) mmol/L], respectively. There was a negative correlation between nesfatin-1 levels and body weight and body mass index-standard deviation score (p=0.01, r=-0.83; p=0.025, r=-0.81, respectively). No correlation was found between nesfatin-1 and gonadotropin, estradiol levels, uterine length or endometrial thickness. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that there are no differences between girls with CPP and healthy, prepubertal girls regarding nesfatin-1 levels
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