Amaç – Girişimcilik ile ilgili araştırmaların büyük bir bölümü bir girişim başlatma faaliyetini birey düzeyinde birtakım etmenlerle açıklamakta ve çevresel faktörlerin etkisini göz ardı etmektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı yenilikçi girişimciliğin gerek birey ve gerekse ülke düzeyinde öncüllerini analiz etmektir. Yöntem – İlgili literatür ışığında, birey düzeyinde sosyal-psikolojik etkenler ve ülke düzeyinde kurumsal etkenler ile bir bireyin erken aşama yenilikçi girişimci olma olasılığı arasındaki ilişkiyi ortaya koyan çok-düzeyli bir kavramsal çerçeve geliştirilmiştir. Bu çerçeveyi test etmek için Global Girişimcilik Gözlemevi’nin (GEM) girişimcilik davranış ve tutumlarına ilişkin verileriyle Fraser Enstitüsünce yayımlanan ekonomik özgürlüklerle ilgili verilerin birleşiminden oluşan hiyerarşik bir veri setinden yararlanılmıştır. Yetmiş yedi ülkeden toplam 87502 gözlem içeren bu veri setini analiz etmek için çok-düzeyli (karışık etkili) lojistik regresyon yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Bulgular – Bulgular, ortaya konan kavramsal çerçeveyi büyük ölçüde desteklemektedir. Spesifik olarak, birey düzeyinde, girişimsel öz-yetkinlik, tecrübe ve başarısızlık korkusu ile yenilikçi girişimcilik arasında güçlü bir ilişki olduğu görülmektedir. Ayrıca, ülke düzeyinde, devletin girişimciliğe sağladığı desteklerin yeterliliği ve bürokratik etkinlik arttıkça birey düzeyinde erken aşama yenilikçi girişimciliğin arttığı görülmektedir. Ancak, bulgular mülkiyet haklarına sağlanan koruma ile birey düzeyinde yenilikçi girişimcilik arasında bir ilişki olmadığını göstermektedir. Tartışma – Bu çalışma bireysel faktörler ile beraber kurumsal bağlamın bir bireyin girişimcilik davranışı üzerindeki etkisini ortaya koymaktadır. Bulgular, bir ülkenin kurumsal yapı ve sistemlerinin bireylerin ekonomik faaliyete katılımını sağlama ve dolayısıyla ekonomik gelişme açısından oynadığı rolü göz önüne sermektedir.
Purpose – Most researchers link entrepreneurial attitudes and behaviors to individual differences, and ignore effects related to the contex surrounding the individual. This study examines the individual and country level determinants of innovative entrepreneurship. Design/methodology/approach – Based on extant literature, this study develops a multilevel framework that links individual level social-psychological determinants and country level institutional determinants to the likelihood that an early-stage entrepreneur is involved in an innovative entrepreneurial activity. To analyze this framework, a hierarchical data set that merges micro level entrepreneurial data from the Global Entreprenuership Monitor with country-level institutional data from the Fraser Institute was used. The final data set consists of 87502 observations from 77 countries. The hypotheses were tested by utilizing multilevel (mixed-effects) logit regression estimation technique. Findings – The results indicate that at the individual level entrepreneurial self-efficacy, experience and fear of failure are strongly related to the likelihood that an individual entrepreneur is involved in an innovative entrepreneurial activity. We also find strong evidence that innovative entrepreneurial activity increases with both bureaucratic efficiency and government support for entrepreneurship. On the other hand, property rights protection does not seem to be related to the probability that an entrepreneurial activity is innovative. Discussion – Overall, the results suggest that not only the individual characteristics but also the institutional context matters for entrepreneurial activity. The results underscore the the critical role that institutions play with respect to individual economic behavior and hence economic development.
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