Türkiye: Afrika İçin İyi Niyetli Altyapı Tedarikçisi

Afrika, 2003 yılında Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi’nin yönetime gelmesinden sonra Türkiye’nin etkileşimini arttırdığı bölgelerden biridir. Türkiye’nin Afrika politikası siyasal, ekonomik, dini ve kültürel birçok boyutu olmasına karşın, bu çalışma Türkiye’nin Afrika’daki altyapı yatırımlarına yoğunlaşmaktadır. Bu çalışma, Türkiye’nin Afrika’daki altyapı yatırımlarına katılımı Başkan Erdoğan’ın Türk dış politikasındaki “Dünya Beş’ten Büyüktür” söylemiyle alakalıdır. Türkiye kıtada materyal kazanımla ilgilenmemekte, Afrika devletlerini güçlendirmekle, günümüzdeki dünya düzenini reform çabalarında ve daha adil bir dünya inşa etmekte mobilize etmeye çabalamaktadır. Türkiye kendisini iyi niyetli bir girişimci olarak markalamaktadır. Bu çalışma, Türkiye’nin Afrika’daki altyapı yatırımlarını ve Afrika’daki projelerdeki Başkan Erdoğan ve diğer yetkililerin birlikte kazanma ve eşit ortaklık vurgularına değinmektedir. Türkiye’nin Afrika’daki ana rakipleri olan Çin ve Fransa’yı da içermektedir. Çin, borç karşılığında altyapılarda hisse alma şeklinde olan borç tuzağı diplomasisini uygularken, Fransa kıtadaki hegemon statüsünü altyapı yatırımları aracılığıyla koruma peşindedir. Türkiye kendisini bu aktörlerden dürüst söylemleri ve sorumlu yatırımları ile farklılaştırmakta, Afrikali nüfus arasındaki imajını yükseltmektedir.

Türkiye: Infrastructure Provider for Africa with Benevolence

Africa emerged as a region to which Türkiye has engaged enthusiastically since 2003 when the Justice and Development Party came to power. Although Türkiye’s policy in Africa has many dimensions such as political, economic, religious, and cultural, this study focuses on its infrastructure investments. This paper argues that Türkiye’s commitment in infrastructure development in Africa is related with the President Erdoğan’s grand narrative of “The World is Bigger than Five” in Turkish foreign policy. Türkiye is not interested in material gains in the continent but it seeks to elevate and mobilize the African states in its endeavors to reform the current world order and to build a fairer world. Türkiye brands itself as a benevolent enterprising actor in Africa. This study deals with Turkish infrastructure practices and the President Erdoğan and other officials’ emphases on mutual gain and equal partnership in the projects in Africa. It also includes the infrastructure activities of Türkiye’s main competitors on the continent, China and France. While China engages in debt-trap diplomacy characterized by gaining stakes in shares of the infrastructures in exchange of writing off debts, France seeks to maintain its hegemonic status on the continent through infrastructure investments. Türkiye differs itself from these actors with its sincere statements and responsible investments on the continent, raising its image among the African population.

___

Abi-Habib, M. (2018). How China Got Sri Lanka to Cough Up a Port. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/25/world/asia/china-sri-lanka-port.html

Açıkalın, Ş. N. (2021). Türk-Alman İlişkilerinde Lider Diplomasisi. Nobel Yayınevi.

Adeshokan, O. (2021). China’s Investment Drive and Africa’s Disjointed Infrastructure. The Diplomat. https://thediplomat.com/2021/12/chinas-investment-drive-and-africas-disjointed-infrastructure/#:~:text=The BRI had an initial,%242 trillion operating in Africa.

AFD. (2022). AFD and Africa: Supporting the Transitions Throughout the Continent. (https://www.afd.fr/en/page-region-pays/africa

Afreximbank. (2019). Afreximbank President Meets Turk Eximbank CEO. https://www.afreximbank.com/afreximbank-president-meets-turk-eximbank-ceo/

Al Jazeera. (2016). Erdoğan: Türkiye’nin Afrika’da sömürgeci geçmişi olmadı. http://www.aljazeera.com.tr/haber/erdogan-turkiyenin-afrikada-somurgeci-gecmisi-olmadi

Berneunion. (2021). Türk Eximbank’s Experience in Sub-Saharan Africa. https://www.berneunion.org/Articles/Details/582/Turk-Eximbanks-Experience-in-Sub-Saharan-Africa

Calabrese, L., & Tang, X. (2020). Africa’s economic transformation: the role of Chinese investment. The DFID-ESRC Growth Research Programme (DEGRP).

Çavuşoğlu, M. (2018, May 25). Turkey and Africa are building a solid partnership. Daily Sabah. https://www.dailysabah.com/op-ed/2018/05/25/turkey-and-africa-are-building-a-solid-partnership

Chellaney, B. (2017). China’s debt-trap diplomacy. Aspi Strategist. https://www.aspistrategist.org.au/chinas-debt-trap-diplomacy/

Daban, C. (2021). 21. Yüzyılda Türkiye’nin Afrika Ülkeleri ile Siyasi ve Diplomatic İlişkileri. ASBİ Abant Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 21(3), 925–944.

Dahir, A. (2021). The Turkey-Africa Bromance: Key Drivers, Agency, and Prospects. Insight Turkey, 23(4), 27–38.

Daily Sabah. (2020).Türk Eximbank, major African development bank ink funding cooperation deal. https://www.dailysabah.com/business/economy/turk-eximbank-major-african-development-bank-ink-funding-cooperation-dea

DEİK. (2021). Erdoğan: “Türk Firmalarının Afrika Genelinde Üstlendiği Projelerin Toplam Değeri Yaklaşık 70 Milyar Dolara Ulaştı.” https://www.deik.org.tr/basin-aciklamalari-erdogan-turk-firmalarinin-afrika-genelinde-ustlendigi-projelerin-toplam-degeri-yaklasik-70-milyar-dolara-ulasti

Duran, B. (2022). Erdoğan’ın yoğun Afrika mesaisi. Sabah. https://www.sabah.com.tr/yazarlar/duran/2022/02/22/erdoganin-yogun-afrika-mesaisi

Durmaz, M. (2021). As Erdogan set for another tour, Turkey deepens ties with Africa. Al Jazeera. https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2021/10/16/as-erdogan-set-for-another-tour-turkey-deepens-ties-with-africa

DW. (2021). Turkey seeks to strengthen Africa relations with “benevolence.” https://www.dw.com/en/turkey-seeks-to-strengthen-africa-relations-with-benevolence/a-56452857

Embassy of the People’s Republic of China in the Republic of Ghana. (2006). Chinese Government Issues African Policy Paper. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/cegh//eng/xwdt/t231007.htm

Erdoğan, R. T. (2017). The Vision of New Turkey “The World Is Bigger Than Five.” Department of Corporate Communications.

Erdoğan, R. T. (2021). Daha Adil Bir Dünya Mümkün Birleşmiş Milletler İçin Bir Reform Önerisi. Türkuvaz Kitap.

Fabricus, P. (2021). Making Turkey Great Again. Institute for Security Studies. https://issafrica.org/iss-today/making-turkey-great-again

Habiyeremye, A., & Oğuzlu, T. (2014). Engagement with Africa: Making Sense of Turkey’s Approach in the Context of Growing East-West Rivalry. Uluslararası İlişkiler, 11(41), 65–85.

Irish, J. (2019). Macron woos East Africa but French companies struggle to make inroads. Al Jazeera. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-france-africa-analysis-idUSKCN1QZ1TA

Istanbul Africa Trade Company. (2021). 2021 Construction Sector in Africa. https://www.istanbulafrica.com/construction-sector-in-africa/

Jensen, C. B., & Morita, A. (2017). Introduction: Infrastructures as Ontological Experiments. Ethnos, 82(4), 615–626.

Karagül, S., & Arslan, İ. (2013). Türkiye’nin Afrika Açılım Politikası: Tarihsel Arka Plan, Stratejik Ortaklık ve Geleceği. Uluslararası Hukuk ve Politika, 9(35), 21–55.

Kato, R. L. (2021). What will it take to fill Africa’s growing infrastructure deficit? Africanews. https://www.africanews.com/2021/10/05/what-will-it-take-to-fill-africa-s-growing-infrastructure-deficit/#:~:text=The African Development Bank estimates,around %24100 billion a year.

Kayalar, S. (2021). The Pioneer of Cooperation for Sustainable Development in Africa: TİKA. TİKA. https://www.tika.gov.tr/en/news/the_pioneer_of_cooperation_for_sustainable_development_in_africa_tika-67113

Kazancı, H. (2018). Turkey, South Africa to boost trade ties: Erdogan. Anadolu Ajansı. https://www.aa.com.tr/en/africa/turkey-south-africa-to-boost-trade-ties-erdogan/1216093

Kenyon, P. (2018). Turkey Is Quietly Building Its Presence In Africa. NPR. https://www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2018/03/08/590934127/turkey-is-quietly-building-its-presence-in-africa?t=1646906596353

Larkin, B. (2013). The Politics and Poetics of Infrastructure. The Annual Review of Anthropology, 42, 327–343.

Logistics Update. (2017). Tanzania requests for loan to Turkish Eximbank to fund new SGR. Africa. https://www.logupdateafrica.com/tanzania-requests-for-loan-to-turkish-eximbank-to-fund-new-sgr

Mallet, V., Munshi, N., & Pilling, D. (2020). Why Macron’s attempt to reset French ties to Africa has hit trouble. The Financial Times. https://www.ft.com/content/cea9cdd9-c500-41bc-a2ae-2e4c01eaf2e8

Marbot, O., & Toulemonde, M. (2021). In Africa, France’s image takes a hit, but Turkey, Qatar and the UAE’s are on the up. The Africa Report. https://www.theafricareport.com/73566/in-africa-frances-image-takes-a-hit-but-turkey-qatar-and-the-uaes-are-on-the-up/

Monteine, C. (2019). Macron’s Africa visit reveals determination to weaken China’s grip on the continent. CNBC. https://www.cnbc.com/2019/03/16/macrons-africa-visit-reveals-determination-to-weaken-chinas-grip-on-the-continent.html

Noort, C. van. (2021). Infrastructure Communication in International Relations. Routledge.

Noort, C. van. (2022). China’s Communication of the Belt and Road Initiative Silk Road and Infrastructure Narratives. Routledge.

Özbil, Ö. F. (2021). Türkiye’nin Uganda Büyükelçisi Kerem Alp: Afrika’da büyükelçi olmak hayata yeniden başlamak gibi. Independent Turkçe. https://www.indyturk.com/node/446836/türki̇yeden-sesler/türkiyenin-uganda-büyükelçisi-kerem-alp-afrikada-büyükelçi-olmak

Pollet, M. (2022). Macron hosts European and African leaders in preparation of Sahel redeployment. Euractiv. https://www.euractiv.com/section/defence-and-security/news/macron-hosts-european-and-african-leaders-in-preparation-of-sahel-redeployment/

Republic of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (2008). Framework of Cooperation adopted on 19 August 2008 at the Turkey-Africa Cooperation Summit in İstanbul. http://afrika.mfa.gov.tr/framework-of-cooperation-adopted-on-19-august-2008-at-the-turkey-africa-cooperation-summit-in-istanbul.en.mfa

Republic of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (2021). Turkey-Africa Relations. https://www.mfa.gov.tr/turkey-africa-relations.en.mfa

Reuters. (2021). Zambia foreign minister says discussed debt with Chinese counterpart. https://www.reuters.com/article/zambia-economy-idUSL8N2S167Z

Sauvage, G. (2021). France shifts policy on aid to Africa to counter rising Chinese influence. France 24. https://www.france24.com/en/africa/20210306-france-shifts-policy-on-aid-to-africa-to-counter-rising-chinese-influence

Shepard, W. (2019). What China Is Really Up To In Africa. Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/wadeshepard/2019/10/03/what-china-is-really-up-to-in-africa/?sh=2fdc4da25930

Tanchum, M. (2021). Turkey’s Maghreb–West Africa Economic Architecture: Challenges and Opportunities for the European Union. The Centre for Applied Turkey Studies (CATS).

Tavsan, S. (2021). Turkey’s scramble for Africa is reinforced by soft power. Asia Nikkei.

The Committee on Foreign Affairs. (2018). China in Africa: New Colonialism? Washington: D.C.

The EastAfrican. (2021). China loan binge starts to bite; the US, EU hope to gain from fallout. https://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/tea/news/east-africa/china-loan-binge-bite-the-us-eu-hope-to-gain-from-fallout-3632760

TİKA. (2022). TİKA Supports the Health Infrastructure of Senegal. https://www.tika.gov.tr/en/news/tika_supports_the_health_infrastructure_of_senegal-68363

Tosun, M., & Beyaz, Z. F. (2022). Cumhurbaşkanı Erdoğan: Afrika ülkeleri ile ilişkilerimizi kardeşlik ve dayanışma temelinde geliştirmeye devam edeceğiz. Anadolu Ajansı. https://www.aa.com.tr/tr/politika/cumhurbaskani-erdogan-afrika-ulkeleri-ile-iliskilerimizi-kardeslik-ve-dayanisma-temelinde-gelistirmeye-devam-edecegiz/2508026

Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Cumhurbaşkanlığı İletişim Başkanlığı. (2021). Cumhurbaşkanı Erdoğan, “Türkiye ile Afrika’yı her alanda yakınlaştırmaya devam ediyoruz.” https://www.iletisim.gov.tr/turkce/Haberler/detay/cumhurbaskani-erdogan-turkiye-ile-afrikayi-her-alanda-yakinlastirmaya-devam-ediyoruz

WION. (2021). China’s debt trap strategy: Uganda set to lose its only international airport to Beijing. https://www.wionews.com/world/chinas-debt-trap-strategy-uganda-set-to-lose-its-only-international-airport-to-beijing-432465

Yeni Şafak. (2021). Erdoğan’dan sömürge düzenine tepki: Korktukça zulüm Afrika’yı sarar. https://www.yenisafak.com/gundem/erdogandan-somurge-duzenine-tepki-korktukca-zulum-afrikayi-sarar-3707598

___

APA Tekir, G. (2022). Türkiye: Infrastructure Provider for Africa with Benevolence . İletişim ve Diplomasi , Kamu Diplomasisi ve Ülke Markalama Özel Sayısı , 71-89 . DOI: 10.54722/iletisimvediplomasi.1102872