Entegre devreler (IC'ler veya mikroçipler), bilgisayarlar ve otomobiller gibi yüksek teknolojili tüketici elektronik cihazlarda kullanılır. IC üretim tarihinde, 1980'ler, çip üretim teknolojisinin dünya çapında hızlı bir şekilde gelişmesine ve yayılmasına sahne olmuştur. O zamana kadar lider olan Birleşik Devletler üreticileri, yeni rekabetle karşı karşıya kaldılar ve Japon üreticiler, 1980'lerin ortalarında hem ABD hem de dünya pazarını etkin bir şekilde ele geçirdiler. Buna tepki olarak, ABD'li üreticiler resmi bir koruma girişimi talebiyle ABD Ticaret Temsilciliği Ofisi’ne şikayette bulundular. Dünyanın en büyük elektronik pazarından men edilme tehdidi altında, Japonya 1986 Japonya-ABD Yarı İletken Anlaşması’nı imzalamayı kabul etti. Japonya IC endüstrisine ciddi engellemeler getiren anlaşma 1991'de yenilendi. 1996'da ABD tarafında beklenti yeni bir yenileme doğrultusundaydı. Ancak Japonya, Dünya Yarı İletken Konseyi'nin (WSC) kurulmasını önerdi. Hükümetler arasındaki ikili anlaşmadan özel sektör temsilcilerinden oluşan çok taraflı bir foruma giden bu büyük değişiklik, “neden” sorusunu gündeme getiriyor. Bu makale, Japonya’nın WSC'nin kurulması önerisine yol açan faktörlerin tarihsel bir analizini sunmaktadır. Bu analizde açıklama faktörleri Japonya açısından uluslararası ve yerel faktörler olarak ikiye ayrılmaktadır. 1986 anlaşmasındaki ABD diplomatik üstünlüğünün ve Japonya'nın kendi iç siyasi ekonomik dönüşümünün etkisinin WSC önerisinde etkili olduğu sonucuna varılmaktadır.
Integrated circuits (ICs or microchips) are used in high-tech consumer electronics such as computers and automobiles. In the history of IC manufacturing, the 1980s featured rapid improvement and spreading of the chip manufacturing technology around the globe. This led to the United States manufacturers which had been the incumbent leaders so far to face new competition. The Japanese manufacturers had effectively captured both the US and world market by the mid-1980s. In reaction, the US manufacturers filed complaints to the Office of the US Trade Representative leading to an official protective initiative. Under the threat of being cut out of the largest electronics market at the time, Japan agreed to sign the 1986 Japan-US Semiconductor Agreement, with significant demands placed on its industry. The agreement was renewed in 1991 and in 1996, the expectation on the US side was another renewal. Instead, Japan proposed founding the World Semiconductor Council (WSC). This major framework change from a bilateral agreement between governments to a multilateral forum of private sector representatives begets the question of “why.” This paper presents a historical analysis of the factors that led to the Japanese proposal for foundation of the WSC. In this analysis, explanation factors are divided into international and domestic factors from the viewpoint of Japan. It is concluded that the effect of the US diplomatic advantage in the 1986 agreement and Japan’s own domestic political economic transformation culminated in the WSC proposal.
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