Purpose – The study aims to explore the mediating role of exploitative innovation by revealing the effects of workplace belongingness and their effects on exploratory innovation in the IT industry. Design/methodology/approach – This research was conducted with 91 executives recruited from IT businesses registered to Adana Chamber of Commerce in Adana Turkey in December 2019. The research was analyzed by the structural equation modeling method based on social exchange and organizational change management theories. Findings – The results of the study show the positive and significant effects of workplace belongingness on exploitative and exploratory innovations in the IT industry. To reveal innovations beyond the existing innovations, the employees' sense of belonging to the workplace and the existing innovations should be improved. Discussion – This study is the first to clarify the association between workplace belongingness and innovation types. There are limitations to the study in the context of sample size and generalizability.
Andrew, O. C., & Sofian, S. (2012). Individual factors and work outcomes of employee engagement. Procedia- Social and behavioral sciences, 40, 498-508.
Bailey, C., Mankin, D., Kelliher, C., & Garavan, T. (2018). Strategic human resource management. Oxford University Press.
Blau, P. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York, NY: Wiley & Sons.
Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological bulletin, 117(3), 497.
Bentler P M & Bonett D G. (1980). Significance tests and goodness of lit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychol. Bull., 88, 588-606.
Brown, T. A. (2015). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. Guilford Publications.
Byrne, B. M. (2013). Structural equation modeling with amos: basic concepts, applications, and programming (Second Edition). Taylor & Francis.
Byrne, B.M. (1998). Structural Equation Modeling with LISREL, PRELIS and SIMPLIS: Basic Concepts, Applications and Programming. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Bysted, R. (2013). Innovative employee behaviour. European Journal of Innovation Management. 16(3), 268-284.
Camelo-Ordaz, C., Garcia-Cruz, J., Sousa-Ginel, E., & Valle-Cabrera, R. (2011). The influence of human resource management on knowledge sharing and innovation in Spain: the mediating role of affective commitment. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(07), 1442-1463.
Cockshaw, W. D., Shochet, I. M., & Obst, P. L. (2014). Depression and belongingness in general and workplace contexts: A cross-lagged longitudinal investigation. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 33(5), 448- 462.
Cockshaw, W.D., Shochet, I.M. and Obst, P.L. (2013), “General belongingness, workplace belongingness, and depressive symptoms”, Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 23 No. 3, pp. 240- 251.
Collins, C. J. (2020). Expanding the resource based view model of strategic human resource management. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 1-28.
Converse, J. M., & Presser, S. (1986), Survey questions: Handcrafting the standardized questionnaire, Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
Davey, K. S., & Sanders, T. J. (2012). Serial strategic innovation and sustainable competitive advantage: A longitudinal case study. Journal of Case Research in Business and Economics, 4, 1.
Disney, J. (1999). Customer satisfaction and loyalty: The critical elements of service quality. Total Quality Management, 10(4-5), 491-497.
Eisenberger, R., Fasolo, P., & Davis-LaMastro, V. (1990). Perceived organizational support and employee diligence, commitment, and innovation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75(1), 51–59. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.75.1.51
Emeagwal, L., & Ogbonmwan, K. O. (2018). Mapping the perceived role of strategic human resource management practices in sustainable competitive advantage. Academy of Strategic Management Journal.
Enkel, E., Heil, S., Hengstler, M., & Wirth, H. (2017). Exploratory and exploitative innovation: To what extent do the dimensions of individual level absorptive capacity contribute?. Technovation, 60, 29-38.
Fan, X., Thompson, B. & Wang, L. (1999). Effects of Sample Size, Estimation Methods, and Model Specification on Structural Equation Modeling Fit Indexes. Structural Equation Modeling, 6 (1), 56-83.
Field, A.(2005). Discovering Statistics Using SPSS, 2nd edn, London: SAGE.
Fornell, C. & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of marketing research, 39-50.
Frambach, R. T., & Schillewaert, N. (2002). Organizational innovation adoption: A multi-level framework of determinants and opportunities for future research. Journal of business research, 55(2), 163-176.
Gefen, D., Straub, D. & Boudreau, M.-C. (2000). Structural Equation Modeling and Regression: Guidelines for Research Practice. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 4(1), 2-77.
Gichohi, P. M. (2014). The role of employee engagement in revitalizing creativity and innovation at the workplace: a survey of selected libraries in Meru County--Kenya. Library Philosophy and Practice.
Gkorezis, P., Kalampouka, P., & Petridou, E. (2013). The mediating role of belongingness in the relationship between workplace incivility and thriving. International Journal of Employment Studies, 21(2), 63.
Guan, J., & Liu, N. (2016). Exploitative and exploratory innovations in knowledge network and collaboration network: A patent analysis in the technological field of nano-energy. Research policy, 45(1), 97-112.
Guarte, J. M., & Barrios, E. B. (2006). Estimation under purposive sampling. Communications in Statistics- Simulation and Computation, 35(2), 277-284.
Hagerty, B.M. and Patusky, K. (1995), “Developing a measure of sense of belonging”, Nursing Research, 44(1), 9-13.
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2006), Multivariate data analysis (6th ed.), Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Hair Jr, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. & Sarstedt, M. (2016). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Sage Publications.
Harrington, D. (2009). Confirmatory factor analysis. Oxford university press.
Hayes, A. F. (2013). Mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis. Introduction to Mediation, Moderation, and Conditional Process Analysis: A Regression-Based Approach. New York: Guilford Publications, 1-20.
Heidhues, P., Kőszegi, B., & Murooka, T. (2016). Exploitative innovation. American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, 8(1), 1-23.
Holak, S. L., & Lehmann, D. R. (1990). Purchase intentions and the dimensions of innovation: An exploratory model. Journal of Product Innovation Management: an international publication of the product development & management association, 7(1), 59-73.
Hong, J., Hou, B., Zhu, K., & Marinova, D. (2018). Exploratory innovation, exploitative innovation and employee creativity. Chinese Management Studies.12(2), 268-286.
Hooper, D., Coughlan, J. & Mullen, M. (2008). Structural equation modelling: guidelines for determining model fit. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 6(1), 53-60.
Howell, D. C. (2010). Statistical Methods for Psychology. 7. Ed. Belmont: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Hu, L. & Bentler, P.M. (1999). Cutoff Criteria for Fit Indexes in Covariance Structure Analysis: Conventional Criteria Versus New Alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1-55.
Huang, S., Ding, D., & Chen, Z. (2014). Entrepreneurial Leadership and Performance in C hinese New Ventures: A Moderated Mediation Model of Exploratory Innovation, Exploitative Innovation and Environmental Dynamism. Creativity and Innovation Management, 23(4), 453-471.
Jansen, J. (2005). Ambidextrous organizations: a multiple-level study of absorptive capacity, exploratory and exploitative innovation and performance (No. 55). ERIM Ph.D. Series Research in Management. Erasmus University Rotterdam. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1765/6774
Jansen, J. J., Van den Bosch, F. A., & Volberda, H. W. (2005). Exploratory innovation, exploitative innovation, and ambidexterity: The impact of environmental and organizational antecedents. Schmalenbach Business Review, 57(4), 351-363.
Jansen, J. J., Van Den Bosch, F. A., & Volberda, H. W. (2006). Exploratory innovation, exploitative innovation, and performance: Effects of organizational antecedents and environmental moderators. Management science, 52(11), 1661-1674.
Jeffres, L., & Atkin, D. (1996). Predicting use of technologies for communication and consumer needs. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 40(3), 318-330.
Jena, L. K., & Pradhan, S. (2018). Conceptualizing and validating workplace belongingness scale. Journal of Organizational Change Management.
Kamaşak, R., & Bulutlar, F. (2010). The influence of knowledge sharing on innovation. European Business Review.
Kline, R.B. (2005). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling (2nd Edition ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.
Kline R. B. (2016). Principles and Practices of Structural Equation Modeling (4th Edn). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Lawler, E. J. (2001). An affect theory of social exchange. American journal of sociology, 107(2), 321-352.
Leary, M.R. and Cox, C.B. (2008), “Belongingness motivation: a mainspring of social action”, in Shah, J.Y. and Gardener, W.L. (Eds), Handbook of Motivation Science, Guilford, New York, NY, pp. 27-40.
Lee, R. M., & Robbins, S. B. (1995). Measuring belongingness: The social connectedness and the social assurance scales. Journal of counseling psychology, 42(2), 232.
Li, Y., Zhou, N., & Si, Y. (2010). Exploratory innovation, exploitative innovation, and performance. Nankai Business Review International.
Li, Y., Zhang, Y., & Zheng, S. (2016). Social capital, portfolio management capability and exploratory innovation: evidence from China. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing.
MacKenzie, S.B., & Podsakoff, P.M. (2012). Common method bias in marketing: Causes,mechanisms, and procedural remedies. Journal of Retailing, 88, 4, 542–555.
Malone, G.P., Pillow, D.R. and Osman, A. (2012), “The general belongingness scale (GBS): assessingachieved belongingness”, Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 52 No. 3, pp. 311-316.
Maruyama, G. M. (1998). Basics of structural equation modeling. Thousand Oaks, CA, US: SagePublications, Inc.
Miles, J. & Shevlin, M. (2007). A time and a place for incremental fit indices. Personality and Individual Differences, 42(5), 869-874.
Mohamed, Z. N. J. M. M. L., Newton, J. M., & McKenna, L. (2014). Belongingness in the workplace: a study of M alaysian nurses' experiences. International Nursing Review, 61(1), 124-130.
Nunnally, J. C. (1976). Psychometric theory (2nd ed). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Oeij, P., Dhondt, S., Kraan, K., Vergeer, R., & Pot, F. D. (2012). Workplace Innovation and its Relations with Organisational Performance and Employee Commitment-www-publicatie.
Ottenbacher, M., & Gnoth, J. (2005). How to develop successful hospitality innovation. Cornell hotel and restaurant administration quarterly, 46(2), 205-222.
Podsakoff, P. M., & Organ, D. W. (1986), “Self-reports in organizational research: Problems and prospects”, Journal of Management, Vol. 12 No. 4, pp.531-544.
Park, J., & Kim, S. (2015). The differentiating effects of workforce aging on exploitative and exploratory innovation: The moderating role of workforce diversity. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 32(2), 481- 503.
Phelps, C. C. (2010). A longitudinal study of the influence of alliance network structure and composition on firm exploratory innovation. Academy of management journal, 53(4), 890-913.
Ruppel, C. P., & Harrington, S. J. (2000). The relationship of communication, ethical work climate, and trust to commitment and innovation. Journal of business Ethics, 25(4), 313-328.
Sacchi, M.D. (1998). A bootstrap procedure for high-resolution velocity analysis. Geophysics, 63(5), 1716-1725.
Saebi, T., & Foss, N. J. (2015). Business models for open innovation: Matching heterogeneous open innovation strategies with business model dimensions. European Management Journal, 33(3), 201-213.
Schumacker, R.E. & Lomax, R.G. (1996). A Beginner’s Guide to Structural Equation Modeling. Mahwah. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.
Shakespeare-Finch, J., & Daley, E. (2017). Workplace belongingness, distress, and resilience in emergency service workers. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 9(1), 32– 35. https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0000108.
Sharma, S., Mukherjee, S., Kumar, A., & Dillon, W.R. (2005). A simulation study to investigate the use of cutoff values for assessing model fit in covariance structure models. Journal of Business Research, 58 (1), 935- 943.
Somoray, K., Shakespeare-Finch, J., & Armstrong, D. (2017). The impact of personality and workplace belongingness on mental health workers' professional quality of life. Australian Psychologist, 52(1), 52- 60.
Srivastava, S., Sultan, A., & Chashti, N. (2017). Influence of innovation competence on firm level competitiveness: an exploratory study. Asia Pacific Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship.
Steiger, J.H. (2007). Understanding the limitations of global fit assessment in structural equation modeling. Personality and Individual Differences, 42(5), 893-898.
Stevens, J.P. (1992). Applied Multivariate Statistics for the Social Sciences (2 nd edition). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Subramanian, A. M. (2012). A longitudinal study of the influence of intellectual human capital on firm exploratory innovation. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 59(4), 540-550.
Tabachnick, B.G. & Fidell, L.S. (2007). Using Multivariate Statistics (5th edition). New York: Allyn and Bacon.
Talukder, M., & Quazi, A. (2011). The impact of social influence on individuals' adoption of innovation. Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce, 21(2), 111-135.
Todnem By, R. (2005). Organisational change management: A critical review. Journal of change management, 5(4), 369-380.
Tanaka, J. S. (1993). Multifaceted conceptions of fit in structural equation models. In J. A. Bollen &J. S. Long (Eds), Testing structural equation models (pp. 10-39). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Tung, R. L. (1984). Strategic management of human resources in the multinational enterprise. Human resource management, 23(2), 129-143.
Wang, C., Rodan, S., Fruin, M., & Xu, X. (2014). Knowledge networks, collaboration networks, and exploratory innovation. Academy of Management Journal, 57(2), 484-514.
Wheaton, B., Muthen, B., Alwin, D. F. & Summers, G. F. (1977). Assessing Reliability and Stability in Panel Models. In David R. Heise (Ed.). Sociological Methodology Jossey-Bass (84-136). San Francisco.
Williams, L. J., Hartman, N. & Cavazotte, F. (2010), “Method Variance and Marker Variables: A Review and Comprehensive CFA Marker Technique”, Organizational ResearchMethods, 13 (3), 477- 514.
Xie, Y., Xue, W., Li, L., Wang, A., Chen, Y., Zheng, Q., ... & Li, X. (2018). Leadership style and innovation atmosphere in enterprises: An empirical study. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 135, 257- 265.
Zeng, D., Hu, J., & Ouyang, T. (2017). Managing innovation paradox in the sustainable innovation ecosystem: A case study of ambidextrous capability in a focal firm. Sustainability, 9(11), 2091.