Mütevazı Liderlik Ölçeğinin Türkçe Uyarlaması ve Mütevazı Liderliğin Seslilik Davranışına Etkisi: Kuşak Farklılığının Düzenleyici Rolü

Amaç – Bu araştırmanın amacı Owens ve arkadaşları (2013) tarafından geliştirilen mütevazı liderlik ölçeğini Türkçe’ye uyarlamaktır. Bunun yanı sıra çalışmada mütevazı liderliğin seslilik davranışı üzerindeki etkisi ve bu etkinin kuşak farklılığına göre değişip değişmediği incelenmiştir. Yöntem – Araştırmada nicel araştırma yöntemi kullanılmış ve iki farklı örneklemden anket tekniği ile veriler toplanmıştır. Akademisyenlerden oluşan birinci örneklem (n = 166) ölçeğin uyarlaması için, kamu çalışanlarından oluşan ikinci örneklem (n = 196) ise araştırma hipotezlerinin testi için kullanılmıştır. Birinci örneklemden elde edilen verilerin yapısal geçerliliğini tespit etmek için keşfedici ve doğrulayıcı faktör analizleri, güvenirlik analizi ve bağımsız t testi yapılmıştır. İkinci örneklemden elde edilen verilerin test edilmesi için regresyon analizi yapılmıştır. Bulgular – Yapılan analizlerde mütevazı liderlik ölçeğinin tek faktörlü orijinal yapısının desteklendiği görülmüştür. Bununla birlikte mütevazı liderlik algısının seslilik davranışını pozitif yönde etkilediği ve bu etkinin X kuşağı çalışanlarda Y kuşağı çalışanlara göre daha güçlü olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Tartışma – Araştırmada elde edilen tüm bulgular mütevazı liderlik ölçeğinin Türkiye’deki araştırmalarda kullanılabileceğini göstermiştir. Buna ek olarak örgütlerde mütevazı liderlik tarzının önemli olduğu, zira bu liderlik tarzının sergilenmesiyle seslilik davranışının arttığı ve bu durumun her iki kuşak için geçerli olmakla birlikte, X kuşağında daha belirgin olduğu görülmüştür.

Turkish Adaptation of the Humble Leadership Scale and the Effect of Humble Leadership on Voice Behavior: The Moderator Role of Generation Differences

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to adapt the humble leadership scale developed by Owens et al. (2013) to Turkish. Besides, in the study, the effect of humble leadership on voice behavior and whether this effect varies according to generational difference was examined. Design/methodology/approach – Quantitative research method was used in the study and data were collected using questionnaire technique from two different samples. The first sample included academicians (n = 166) was used for the adaptation of the scale, and the second sample included civil servants (n = 196) was used to test the research hypotheses. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyzes, reliability analysis and independent t test were performed to determine the structural validity of the data obtained from the first sample. Regression analysis was performed to test the data obtained from the second sample. Findings – In the analyses, it was seen that the humble leadership scale has a single factor structure. However, it was determined that the humble leadership perception positively affects the voice behavior and this effect was observed to be stronger in the X generation employees than in the Y generation employees. Discussion – The findings of the study showed that humble leadership scale can be used in Turkish studies. The study showed that humble leadership style is important in organizations because the voice behavior increases with the demonstration of this leadership style. In addition, humble leadership strengthened the voice behavior of both generations of employees, however, generation X, which perceived humble leadership behavior, showed more voice behavior than generation Y.

Kaynakça

Aka, B. (2017). Kamu ve özel sektörde çalışan yöneticilerin kuşak farklılıkları ve örgütsel bağlılık düzeyleri arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi: İzmir ilinde bir araştırma, (Yayımlanmamış Doktora Tezi), İzmir Katip Çelebi Üniversitesi, İzmir.

Alfayad, Z., and Arif, L. S. M. (2017). Employee voice and job satisfaction: An application of Herzberg twofactor theory. International Review of Management and Marketing, 7(1), 150-156.

Arslan, A., ve Yener, S. (2016). İşgören sesliliği ölçeğinin Türkçe’ye uyarlanması çalışması. Yönetim ve Ekonomi Araştırmaları Dergisi, 14(1), 173-191.

Baraz, B. A., Şivil, H. (2017). X ve y kuşağı öğrencilerin demografik özellikleri ve örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışı arasındaki ilişki. Gençlik Araştırmaları Dergisi, 5(13), 93-108.

Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations. New York: The Free Pres.

Baykal, E. (2017). Otantik Liderlik ve Pozitif Çıktıları: Pozitif Örgütsel Davranış Bakış Açısı. Uluslararası İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Dergisi, 3(3), 42-64.

Benson, J. and Brown, M. (2011). Generations at work: Are there differences and do they matter?, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(9), 1843-1865.

Boekhorst, J. A. (2015). The role of authentic leadership in fostering workplace inclusion: A social information processing perspective, Human Resource Management, 54(2), 241-264.

Bolat, T., Seymen Aytemiz, O., Bolat, İ., Kinter, O. ve Katı, Y. (2018). Güç mesafesi ve paternalist liderlik ilişkisi: Kuşaklar açısından bir değerlendirme, International Social Sciences Studies Journal, 4(25), 5496-5502.

Bright, D.S., Cameron, K.S. and Caza, A. (2006). The amplifying and buffering effects of virtuousness in downsized organizations. Journal of Business Ethics, 64, 249–269.

Brislin, R.W., Lonner, W.J. and R.M. Thorndike (1973). Cross Cultural Research Methods, New York, John Willey & Sons Pub.

Brown, S.C. (2004). Where this path may lead: understanding career decision-making for postcollege life, Journal of College Student Development, 45(4), 375-90.

Burns, M. G. (1978). Leadership, Harper-Row, Newyork.

Chen, Y., Liu, B., Zhang, L., and Qian, S. (2019). Can leader “humility” spark employee “proactivity”? The mediating role of psychological empowerment. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 39(3), 326–339. doi: 10.1108/LODJ-10-2017-0307.

Cogin, J. (2012). Are Generational Differences in Work Values Fact or Fiction? Multi-Country Evidence and İmplications. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23(11), 2268-2294.

Cole, M. S., Walter, F., Bruch, H. (2008). Affective mechanisms linking dysfunctional behavior to performance in work teams: A moderated mediation study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(5), 945-958.

Ding, H., Yu, E., Chu, X., Li, Y. and Amin, K. (2020). Humble leadership affects organizational citizenship behavior: The sequential mediating effect of strengths use and job crafting. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1-11. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00065.

Ehrhart, M.G.(2004). Leadership and procedural justice climate as antecedents of unit-level organizational citizenship behavior. Personnel Psychology, 57, 61–94.

Erin, B. (2019). Türkiye'de işveren markasının önemi ve işveren markasının, y ve xkuşağı açısından incelenmesi, (Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi), Marmara Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İstanbul.

Farndale, E., Van Ruiten, J., Kelliher, C., and Hope‐Hailey, V. (2011). The influence of perceived employee voice on organizational commitment: An exchange perspective. Human Resource Management, 50(1), 113-129.

Field, A. (2000). Discovering Statistics using SPSS for Windows. London, Thousand Oaks, Sage Publications, New Delhi.

Fletcher, J. K. (2004). The paradox of postheroic leadership: An essay on gender, power, and transformational change. The Leadership Quarterly, 15(5), 647-661.

Flowers, W., Jones, E., and Hogan, R. L. (2010). Employee development approach for generation Yers: A conceptual framework. Journal of Global Business Management, 6(1), 1–8.

Fornell, C., and Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation model with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50.

Garcia, J.L.A. (2006). Being unimpressed with ourselves: Reconceiving humility. Philosophia, 34, 417-435.

George, D., and Mallery, P. (2003). SPSS for Windows Step by Step: A simple Guide and Reference. 11.0 update (4th ed.). Boston, Allyn & Bacon.

Glass, A. (2007). Understanding generational differences for competitive success, Industrial and Commercial Training, 39, 98–103

Greenleaf, R. K. (1997b). The Servant as Leader. Vecchio, R. P. (Ed.), Leadership: Understanding the Dynamics of Power and Influence in Organizations. University of Notre Dame Press. (Reprinted from "Servant Leadership," Paulist Press, 1977, ss. 7–17).

Greenleaf, R.K. (1977a). Servant leadership: A journey into the nature of legitimate power and greatness. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press.

Gündüz, Ş. ve Pekçetaş, T. (2018). Kuşaklar ve örgütsel sessizlik/seslilik. İşletme Bilimi Dergisi, 6(1), 89-115.

Gürbüz, S. (2015). Kuşak farklılıkları: Mit mi, gerçek mi?, İş ve İnsan Dergisi, 2(1), 39-57.

Gürbüz, S. ve Şahin, F. (2018). Sosyal Bilimlerde Araştırma Yöntemleri, Ankara, Seçkin Yayıncılık

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J. and Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis. Pearson Education.

Hatipoğlu, Z., ve Dündar, G. İ. (2014). Örgütsel bağlılık ve iş tatmini arasındaki ilişkinin x ve y kuşaklarına göre farklılıklarının incelenmesi. Yorum Yönetim Yöntem Uluslararası Yönetim Ekonomi ve Felsefe Dergisi, 6(2), 43-56.

Hayes, A. F., and Preacher, K. J. (2014). Statistical mediation analysis with a multicategorical independent variable. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 67(3), 451-470.

Holland, P., Cooper, B. K., and Hecker, R. (2016). Use of social media at work: a new form of employee voice?, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 27(21), 2621-2634.

Holland, P., Pyman, A., Cooper, B. K., and Teicher, J. (2011). Employee voice and job satisfaction in Australia: The centrality of direct voice. Human Resource Management, 50(1), 95-111.

Hsiung, H. H. (2012). Authentic leadership and employee voice behavior: A multi-level psychological process. Journal of Business Ethics, 107(3), 349-361.

Jiang, H., Liu, W. and Jia, L. (2019). How humble leadership influences the innovation of technology standards: A moderated mediation model. Sustainability, 11, 2-20.

Kerse G. ve Karabey N. C. (2018). Söz Mü Altındır Sükut Mu? Politik Davranış Algısı, Lider Üye Etkileşimi ve Çalışan Sesliliği İlişkisi. Çankaya, F. ve Kayıkçı, S. (Ed.), Sosyal, Beşeri ve İdari Bilimlerde Akademik Araştırmalar-IV, Ankara, Gece Kitaplığı, 487-507.

Kerse, G. (2016). Motivasyon araçlarının örgütsel bağlılık üzerindeki etkisi: Kamu kurumlarındaki x ve y kuşağı karşılaştırması. Business & Management Studies: An International Journal, 4(1), 1-23.

Kim, M., Knutson, B. J., and Choi, L. (2016). The effects of employee voice and delight on job satisfaction and behaviors: Comparison between employee generations. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 25(5), 563-588.

Klein, K. J., and Kozlowski, S. W. J. (2000). From micro to meso: Critical steps in conceptualizing and conducting multilevel research. Organizational Research Methods, 3, 211–236.

Krejcie, R. V., and Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30(3), 607-610.

Lancaster, L.C. (2004), “When Generations Collide: How to Solve the Generational Puzzle at Work”, In The Management Forum Series (pp. 1-5). http://www.washingtonandco.com/pdf/when_generations_collide.pdf (Erişim tarihi: 26.04.2020

Liden, R. C., Wayne, S., Zhao, H. and Henderson, D. (2008). Servant leadership: Development of a multidimensional measure and multi-level assessment, The Leadership Quarterly, 19, 161-177.

Lin, X., Chen, Z. X., Hirst, G., Tse, H., Wei, W., and Ma, C. (2017). Employee voice and leader humility: The perspective of sense of power. In Academy of Management Proceedings (Vol. 2017, No. 1, p. 11257). Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510: Academy of Management.

Liu, C. (2016). Does humble leadership behavior promote employees’ voice behavior?—A dual mediating model, Open Journal of Business and Management, 4(4), 731-740.

MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., and Williams, J. (2004). Confidence limits for the indirect effect: Distribution of the produce and resampling methods, Multivariate Behavioral Research, 39, 99–1.

Mannheim, K. (1952). The problem of generations. Essays on the Sociology of Knowledge, (pp. 276-320). London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Martin, C. A. (2005). From high maintenance to high productivity: What managers need to know about Generation Y, Industrial and Commercial Training, 37 (1), 39–44.

Milliken, F. J., Morrison, E. W., and Hewlin, P. F. (2003). An exploratory study of employee silence: Issues that employees don’t communicate upward and why, Journal of Management Studies, 40(6), 1453-1476.

Morrison, E. W. (2014). Employee voice and silence, Annu. Rev. Organ. Psychol. Organ. Behav., 1(1), 173-197.

Nechanska, E., Hughes, E., and Dundon, T. (2020). Towards an integration of employee voice and silence, Human Resource Management Review, 30(1), 1-13.

Nelson, D. M. (1985). The virtue of humility in Judaism: A critique of rationalist hermeneutics, Journal of Religious Ethics, 13(2), 298-311.

Nielsen, R., Marrone, J.A. and Slay, H.S. (2010). A new look at humility: exploring the humility concept and its role in socialized charismatic leadership, Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 17(1), 33-43.

Owens, B. P. and Hekman, D. R. (2012). Modeling how to grow: An inductive examination of humble leader behaviors, contingencies, and outcomes, Academy of Management Journal, 55(4), 787-818.

Owens, B. P., Johnson, M. D., and Mitchell, T. R. (2013). Expressed humility in organizations: Implications for performance, teams, and leadership, Organization Science,24(5), 1517-1538.

Owens, B. P., Walker, A. S., and Waldman, D. A. (2015). Leader narcissism and follower outcomes: The counterbalancing effect of leader humility, Journal of Applied Psychology. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0038698.

Patterson, K. (2003). Servant leadership: A theoretical model. (Doktora Tezi), Regent University, Graduate School of Business.

Pearce, C., and Conger, J. (2003). All those years ago: The historical underpinnings of shared leadership. In C. Pearce, & J. Conger (Eds.), Shared leadership (pp. 1 – 18). London7 Sage

Preacher, K. J., and Hayes, A. F. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models, Behavior research methods, instruments, & computers, 36(4), 717-731.

Preacher, K. J., Rucker, D. D. and Hayes, A. F. (2007). Addressing moderated mediation hypotheses: Theory, methods, and prescriptions, Multivariate Behavioral Research, 42(1), 185-227.

Premeaux, S.F., and Bedeian, A.G. (2003). Breaking the silence: The moderating effects of self-monitoring in predicting speaking up in the workplace, Journal of Management Studies, 40, 1537–1562.

Rafferty, A.E. and Griffin, M. A. (2006). Refining individualized consideration: Distinguishing developmental leadership and supportive leadership, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 79, 37–61.

Rego, A., Owens, B., Kai, C. Y., Bluhm, D., e Cunha, M. P, Silard, T., Gonçalves, L., Martins, M., Simpson, A.V. and Liu, W. (2017). Leader humility and team performance: exploring the mediating mechanisms of team psychological capital and task allocation effectiveness, Journal of Management, 20, 1–25. doi: 10.1177/0149206316688941.

Reynolds, L., Bush, E.C., and Geist, R. (2008). The gen Y imperative, Communication World, 25(3), 19-22. 24.04.2020 tarihinde https://iabc.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/The-Gen-Y-Imperative.pdf adresinden erişildi.

Salancik, G. R., and Pfeffer, J. (1978). A social information processing approach to job attitudes and task design, Administrative Science Quarterly, 224-253.

Singh, A. and Gupta, B. (2015). Job ınvolvement, organizational commitment, professional commitment, and team commitment: A study of generational diversity. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 22(6), 1192-1211.

Süral Özer, P., Eriş, E.D. ve Timurcanday-Özmen, Ö.N. (2013), Kuşakların farklılaşan iş değerlerine ilişkin emik bir araştırma, Dumlupınar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 38, 123-142.

Swain, J. E. (2017). Does humility make a better military officer? Investigating psychological safety as an explanatory mechanism, examining superiors' perceptions of potential and the effect of gender, and exploring humility in West Point Cadets (Doctoral dissertation, Yale University).

Tangirala, S., and Ramanujam, R. (2008). Exploring nonlinearity in employee voice: The effects of personal control and organizational identification, Academy of Management Journal, 51, 1189–1203.

Temiz, Y.E. (2019). Dindarlar daha fazla mütevazı mı? Alçakgönüllülük ve dindarlık arasındaki ilişki, Turkish Studies - Comparative Religious Studies, 14(4), 779-806.

Torun, Y., ve Çetin, C. (2015). Örgütsel sinizmin kuşaklar bazında değerlendirilmesi: Kuşaklara göre örgütsel sinizmin hedefinde ne var?, İş ve İnsan Dergisi, 2(2), 137-146.

Toruntay, H. (2011). X ve Y kuşağı üzerinde karşılaştırmalı bir araştırma. Yayımlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İstanbul.

Twenge, J. M., Campbell, S. M., Hoffman, B. J., and Lance, C. E. (2010). Generational differences in work values: Leisure and extrinsic values increasing, social and intrinsic values decreasing, Journal of management, 36(5), 1117-1142.

van Dierendonck, D. and Nuijten, I. (2011). The servant leadership survey: Development and validation of a multidimensional measure, The Journal of Business and Psychology, 26, 249-267.

Van Dyne, L., and LePine, J. A. (1998). Helping and voice extra-role behaviors: Evidence of construct and predictive validity, Academy of Management Journal, 41(1), 108-119.

Van Dyne, L., Ang, S., and Botero, I. C. (2003). Conceptualizing employee silence and employee voice as multidimensional constructs, Journal of Management Studies, 40, 1359-1392.

Vera, D. and Rodriguez-Lopez, A. (2004). Humility as a source of competitive advantage, Organizational Dynamics, 33 , 393-408.

Walters, K. N., and Diab, D. (2016). Humble leadership: Implications for psychological safety and follower engagement, Journal of Leadership Studies, 10, 7–18.

Wang, Y., Liu, J. and Zhu, Y. (2018). Humble leadership, psychological safety, knowledge sharing, and follower creativity: A cross-level investigation, Frontiers in Psycholgy, 9, 1-9. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01727.

Yang, K., Zhou, L., Wang, Z., Lin, C. and Luo, Z. (2019). Humble leadership and innovative behaviour among Chinese nurses: The mediating role of work engagement, Journal of Nursing Management, 27, 1801– 1808.

Yuan, L., Zhang, L. and Tu, Y. (2018). When a leader is seen as too humble: A curvilinear mediation model linking leader humility to employee creative process engagement, Leadership & Organization Development Journal, https://doi.org/10.1108/LODJ-03-2017-0056.

Zhang, Y., Huai, M. Y., and Xie, Y. H. (2015). Paternalistic leadership and employee voice in China: A dual process model. The Leadership Quarterly, 26(1), 25-36.

Zhou, F. and Wu, Y.J. (2018). How humble leadership fosters employee innovation behavior: A two-way perspective on the leader-employee interaction, Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 39(3), 375-387.

Zhu, Y., Zhang, S. and Shen, Y. (2019). Humble leadership and employee resilience: Exploring the mediating mechanism of work-related promotion focus and perceived ınsider ıdentity, Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1-9.

Kaynak Göster