Yaşlı Yetişkinlerin Kişisel Anılarında İçsel Durumsal Dil Kullanımının Cinsiyet Farklılıkları Açısından Karşılaştırılması

Bu araştırmada, yaşlı bireylerin otobiyografik anılarını hatırlarken kullandıkları içsel durumsal dil kategorilerinin cinsiyet farklılıkları açısından karşılaştırılması amaçlanmıştır. İçsel durumsal dil, anlatılan anıyla ilgili duygu (mutluluk, üzüntü), biliş (anlamak, düşünmek), algı (görmek, duymak) ve fizyolojik durum (üşümek, yorulmak) gibi kategorileri içeren ve bireyin yaşadığı olaydan belli bir anlama ulaşmasını sağlayan bilişsel bir süreçtir. Araştırmada, 65 yaş ve üstü toplam 60 bireyden beş yaşam dönemine ait birer anı anlatmaları istenmiş, kaydedilen anılar içsel durumsal dil kategorileri açısından incelenmiştir. Sonuçta, kadın katılımcıların anılarını daha fazla duygusal ifade kullanarak öyküleştirdikleri ve daha fazla olumsuz ifade tercih ettikleri gözlenmiştir. Kadınlar, erkeklere kıyasla ergenliğe dair anılarını daha olumlu ifadelerle anlatırken, orta yaşa ait anıları için daha olumsuz ifadeler kullanmışlardır. Biliş, algı ve fizyolojik durum ifadelerinin kullanımları bakımından herhangi bir cinsiyet farklılığı gözlenmemiştir. Sonuçlar cinsiyetlerin maruz kaldıkları farklı sosyalleşme süreçleri ve yaşla ilgili farklılıklar açısından değerlendirilmiştir.

Comparison of Use of Internal State Language in Personal Narratives of Elderly Adults in terms of Gender Differences

The aim of this study is to compare internal state language used by elderly people in recalling autobiographical memories in terms of gender differences. Internal state language is a cognitive process that consists of some categories such as emotion, cognition, perception and physiological states and allows individuals to reach a certain understanding of their experiences. Sample of research consists of 60 individuals aged 65 and over. In study, participants were asked to narrate an event from their five life periods, and the narratives were examined for the internal state language. Females used significantly more emotions and negative emotional expressions. While they describe their adolescent narratives more positively than men do, for middle age, they used negative emotional expressions. No gender differences were observed in the use of cognition, perception, and physiological states. The results were evaluated in terms of different socialization processes that genders are exposed to and agerelated differences.

Kaynakça

Adams, S., Kuebli, J., Boyle, P. A. ve Fivush, R. (1995). Gender differences in parent-child conversations about past emotions: A longitudinal investigation. Sex Roles, 33, 309–323.

Aizpurua, A. ve Koutstaal, W. (2015). A matter of focus: Detailed memory in the intentional autobiographical recall of older and younger adults. Consciousness and Cognition, 33, 145-155.

Bauer P.J., Stark E.N., Lukowski A.F., Redamacher J., Van Abbema D.L. ve Ackil J.K. (2005). Working together to make sense of the past: Mothers' and children's use of internal states language in conversations about traumatic and nontraumatic events Journal of Cognition and Development, 6, 463-488.

Bauer, P. J., Stennes, L. ve Haight, J. C. (2003). Representation of the inner self in autobiography: Women’s and men’s use of internal states language in personal narratives. Memory, 11, 27–42.

Bohanek, J. G., ve Fivush, R. (2010). Personal narratives, well-being, and gender in adolescence. Cognitive Development, 25, 368–379.

Brody, L. R. ve Hall, J. (1993). Gender and emotion. In M. Lewis & J. Haviland (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (s. 447–461). New York: Guilford Press.

Cangöz, B. (2003). ‘Yaşlı imajı’ üzerine bir değerlendirme. (Editöre Mektup).Geriatri Dergisi (Turkish Journal of Geriatrics), 6(1), 45.

Comblain C., D'Argembeau A. ve Linden, M.V. (2005). Phenomenal characteristics of autobiographical memories for emotional and neutral events in older and younger adults. Experimental Aging Research, 31(2), 173- 89.

Davis, P. J. (1999). Gender differences in autobiographical memory for childhood emotional experiences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 498–510.

Ertan, T. ve Eker, E. (2000). Reliability, validity, and factor structure of the Geriatric Depression Scale in Turkish elderly: Are there different factor structures for different cultures. International Psychogeriatrics, 12(2), 163–172.

Fivush, R. (1998). Gendered narratives: Elaboration, structure and emotion in parent-child reminiscing across the preschool years. In C.P. Thompson,

D.J. Herrmann, D. Bruce, J.D. Read, D.G. Payne, & M.P. Toglia (Eds.), Autobiographical memory: Theoretical and Applied Perspectives, (s. 79-104). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Fivush, R. ve Baker-Ward, L. (2005). The search for meaning: Developmental perspectives on internal state language in autobiographical memory. Journal of Cognition and Development, 6, 455–462.

Fivush, R., Berlin, L. J., Sales, J. M., Mennuti-Washburn, J. ve Cassidy, J. (2003). Functions of parent–child reminiscing about emotionally negative events. Memory, 11, 179–192.

Fivush, R., Bohanek, J. G., Zaman, W. ve Grapin, S. (2012). Gender differences in adolescents’ autobiographical narratives. Journal of Cognition and Development, 13, 295–319.

Fivush, R. ve Buckner, J.P. (2003). Creating gender and identity through autobiographical narratives. In R. Fivush & C. Haden (Eds.), Autobiographical memory and the construction of a narrative self: Developmental and cultural perspectives (s. 149–169). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Friedman, A. ve Pines, A. (1991). Sex differences in gender-related childhood memories. Sex Roles, 25, 25–32.

Grühn, D., Smith, J. ve Baltes, P. B. (2005). No aging bias favoring memory for positive material: evidence from a heterogeneity-homogeneity list paradigm using emotionally toned words. Psychol. Aging 20, 579–588.

Grysman, A. ve Hudson, J. A. (2013). Gender differences in autobiographical memory: Developmental and methodological considerations. Developmental Review, 33, 239–272.

Grysman, A., Merrill, N., Graci, M. ve Fivush, R. (2016). The influence of gender and gender typicality on autobiographical memory across event types and age groups. Memory and Cognition, 44(6), 856-868.

Güngen, C., Ertan T., Eker E., Yasar R. ve Engin F. (2002). Standardize minimental testin Türk toplumunda hafif demans tanısında geçerlik ve güvenilirliği. Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi,13 (4), 273–281.

Habermas, T. ve de Silveira, C. (2008). The development of global coherence in life narratives across adolescence: Temporal, causal, and thematic aspects. Developmental Psychology, 10(44), 707-721.

Kennedy, Q., Mather, M., ve Carstensen, L.L. (2004). The role of motivation in the age-related positivity effect in autobiographical memory. Psychological Science, 15(3), 208-214.

Kensinger, E. A., Brierley, B., Medford, N., Growdon, J. H. ve Corkin, S. (2002). Effects of normal aging and Alzheimer’s disease on emotional memory. Emotion 2, 118–134.

Kuebli J ve Fivush R. (1992). Gender differences in parent-child conversations about past emotions. Sex Roles, 27, 683–698.

Levine, B., Svoboda, E., Hay, J.F., Winocur, G. ve Moscovitch, M. (2002). Aging and Autobiographical Memory: Dissociating Episodic From Semantic Retrieval. Psychology and Aging, 17(4), 677-689.

Mather, M. ve Carstensen, L.L.(2005). Aging and motivated cognition: The positivity effect in attention and memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 496- 502.

McLean, K. C., Pasupathi, M. ve Pals, J. (2007). Selves creating stories creating selves: A process model of self-development. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 11, 262–278.

Pasupathi, M. (2001). The social construction of the personal past and its implications for adult development. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 651– 672.

Pasupathi, M. ve Carstensen, L. L. (2003). Age and emotional experience during mutual reminiscing. Psychology and Aging, 18, 430-442.

Pillemer, D. B., Wink, P., DiDonato, T. E. ve Sanborn, R. L. (2003). Gender differences in autobiographical memory styles of older adults. Memory, 11, 525–532.

Rice, C. ve Pasupathi, M. (2010). Reflecting on self-relevant experiences: Adult age differences. Developmental Psychology, 46, 479–490.

Ross, M. ve Holmberg, D. (1990). Recounting the past: Gender differences in the recall of events in the history of a close relationship. In J. M. Olson & M. P. Zanna (Eds.), Ontario Symposium on Personality and Social Psychology. Selfinference processes: The Ontario symposium, Vol. 6, s. 135-152). Hillsdale, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Ros, L. ve Latorre, J. M. (2010). Gender and age differences in the recall of affective autobiographical memories using the Autobiographical Memory Test. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 950–954.

Sayar, F. (2013). Gençlerin ve yaşlıların otobiyografik bellek özellikleri açısından karşılaştırılması: Betimsel bir çalışma. Psikoloji Çalışmaları Dergisi, 33(1), 1-16.

St-Laurent, M., Moscovitch, M., Levine, B. ve McAndrews, M. P. (2009). Determinants of autobiographical memory in patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy or excisions. Neuropsychologia, 47(11), 2211–2221.

Zaman, W. ve Fivush, R. (2013). Gender differences in elaborative parent– child emotion and play narratives. Sex Roles, 68, 591–604.

Kaynak Göster