Sekülarizm Söyleminde Cinsiyet Eşitliǧine Dair Faraziyeler

Aydınlanmacı söylemin merkezinde olan sekülerlik insanlığa bağımsızlık, özgürlük, kurtuluş ve ilerleme vaat eder. Ayni zamanda sekülerlik söylemi, dogma, köktencilik ve şiddetin kaynağı olarak, dini kendisinin karşıtına yerleştirir. Bu aydınlanmacı söylem, evrensel bir kurtuluş projesi ve cinsiyet eşitliği ilkesi olarak, normatiftik iddia eder. Bu calışmada, sekülerliğin çeşitli bağlamlarda cinsiyet ve cinsellik gözlüğü ile yakın bir okuması yapılarak, sekülerliğin her zaman cinsiyet eşitliğine dair bir ilerleme getirdigi dinin ise her zaman eşitsizlik ve baskı ürettiğine dair söylem sorgulanmaktadır. İlk olarak, sekülerlik ve cinsiyeti anlamada yeni alanlar açmak için ve sekülerliğin evrensellik iddiasını sorgulamak için, sekülerliğin Avrupa kökenleri ve “din” konseptinin oluşturulma süreci incelenmektedir. Ardından birbirlerini farklı bağlamlarda yeniden inşa eden sekülerlik ve dini deneyimlerin çeşitliliği ele alınmıştır. Son olarak da, cinsiyet, cinsellik ve aile bağlamında, seküler ve dini olanın somutlaşma şekillerinin, seküler ve dini ayırımlarını anlamada önemli bir husus olduğu tartışılmıştır.

Assumptions on Gender Equality in the Narrative of Secularism

Secularism, which is central to the Enlightenment narrative, promises liberation, freedom, emancipation, and progress to humanity. At the same time, the narrative of secularism poses religion as its antithesis, which brings dogmatism, fundamentalism, and violence. In this project, I read secularism closely in various contexts from a gender and sexuality perspective and question the assumption that secularism always provides a progress for gender equality, whereas religion always produces inequality and oppression. To open up new ways of understanding secularism and gender, I firstly question the so-called universality of secularism by addressing the European origin of secularism and the concept of religion. Then, I address the diversity of secular and religious experiences which reconstruct each other in various contexts. Finally, I argue that the embodiment of secular or religious in terms of gender, sexuality and family is an important matter for the understanding of the division between religious and secular.

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makes good sense to propound a given definition and when it doesn’t.” See Craig, Genealogies of Religion, Twenty Years On: An Interview with Talal Asad.

iii Although thinking of secularisms as plural in this way challenges the dominant narrative of universalism, particular secularisms are not just autonomous units grounded in relation to particular religious formations. Particular secularisms are also articulated in relation to the dominating discourse of universal secularism, which is tied to the Protestant secularism (Jakobsen and Pellegrini 2008, 13).

iv Kemalism is the state ideology of Turkey built on ideals of founding fathers.

v The anthropologist Mayanthi Fernando argues that headscarf-wearing Muslim girls in France experience a dilemma. For these women, the veil is a freely chosen religious obligation, but for the French secularism choice to submit is not acceptable as free choice. See, Fernando, Reconfiguring Freedom, 19-35.

vi Mahmood argues that the women wearing a headscarf, as in the case of the women within the da’wa movement in Egypt, embody a virtuous life based on the ethical standards of the “historically contingent discursive traditions” which are the context of their lives (Mahmood 2005, 32)

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