COVID-19 GÖLGESİNDE ÇOCUK İŞÇİLİĞİ

Gelişmekte olan ülkelerin çalışma yaşamında en önemli sorunlardan biri çocuk işçiliğidir. Yoksulluk başta olmak üzere toplumun kültürel, sosyal ve ailevi nedenlerin yol açtığı karmaşık bir problemdir. Çocuk işçiliği Uluslararası Çalıma Örgütü’nün 182 Sayılı çocuk işçiliğinin en kötü formunun yasaklaması sözleşmesi sonrasında küresel düzeyde önemli ölçüde azalmıştır. Ne var ki, COVID-19 Pandemisiyle yaşanan sağlık, ekonomik, sosyal ve insani krizin etkisiyle tekrar yükselişe geçmiştir. Bugün dünyada fiziksel, sosyal ve ruhsal gelişimini henüz tamamlamamış olan yaklaşık 160 milyon çocuk, uluslararası standartlara uymayan şartlarda çalıştırılmaktadır. Bu çalışma COVID-19 Pandemisinin çocuk işçiliğini nasıl ve ne ölçüde etkilediğini incelemekte, çalışan çocukların virüsle birlikte “çocuk işçiliğinin en kötü biçimine” maruz bırakıldığını, çocuk işçiliğini ortadan kaldırılmasında çocuklar ve aileleri için sosyal korumayı sağlayabilecek daha uzun vadeli bir strateji geliştirmesinin gerektiğini ileri sürmektedir.

Child Labor in The Shadow Of COVID-19

Child labour is one of the most important problems in the world working life of developing countries. Poverty is a complex problem caused by the cultural, social and family reasons of the society. Child labor has declined significantly in the world after International Labour Organization Convention 182 banning the worst form of child labour. However, the health, economic, social and humanitarian crisis caused by the COVID-19 Pandemic it has started to rise again. Today, around 160 million children, who have not yet completed their physical, social and spiritual development, are working under conditions not complying with the international standards. This study examines how and to what extent the COVID-19 Pandemic has an effect on child labour by arguing that working children are exposed to the “worst form of child labour” because of the virus, and that a longer term strategy should be developed in eliminating child labor that can provide social protection for children and their families.

___

Akşit B., Karancı, N., Gündüz-Hoşgör, A. (2001). Turkey Working Street Children in Three Metropolitan Cities: A Rapid Assessment, Geneva: International Labour Organization International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC).

Amarasinghe S.W. (2002). Sri Lanka - Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children: A Rapid Assessment, Geneva: International Labour Organization International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC).

Antonopoulos R. (2007). The Unpaid Care Work–Paid Work Connection, Working Paper No. 541, The Levy Economics Institute.

Basu, K., Van, P. (1998). “The Economics of Child Labor”, American Economic Review, 88(3), 412-427. doi:10.1257/aer.89.5.1386

Biçerli K. (2019). Çalışma Ekonomisi, İstanbul: Beta Yayınları.

Bourdillon, M., G.Crivello, A.Pankhurst, (2015). Introduction: Children’s work and current debates içinde Pankhurst, A, M.Bourdillon ve G.Crivello (Ed.), Children’s Work and Labour in East Africa. Addis Ababa: Organization for Social Science Research in East Africa.

Boyden J., B. Ling, Myers, W. (1998). What Works for Working Children, Smedjebacken: UNICEF and Save the Children Sweden.

Brown G., (2012). Child Labour and Educational Disadvantage: Breaking The Link, Building Opportunity. London: The Office of the UN Special Envoy for Global Education.

Carrasco, F. B. (2017). Determinants of Child and Adolescent Labour in Chile, Italy: International Training Centre of the International Labour Organization, Working Paper

Castelló, A. L., Olave, M., Denkers, N. (2020). The COVID-19 Pandemic could increase child labour Latin America and The Caribeann, Technical note No.1, ECLAC.

Cogneau, D. & Jedwab, R. (2008). Family income and Child Outcomes: The 1990 Cocoa Price Shock in Côte d’Ivoire,, London: Centre for Economic Development and Institutions Discussion Paper 08-13.

Dong, Y., Yang H. S., (2020), Natural Disaster and Child Labor: Evidence from Indonesian Earthquake, KDI School of Public Policy and Management Working Paper Series. Duryea S., Lam, D.A., Levison, D. (2007). Effects of Economic Shocks on Children’s Employment and Schooling in Brazil, Journal of Development Economics, 84(1), 188-214. doi: 10.1016/j.jdeveco.2006.11.004

Edmonds E.V., Theoharides, C. (2020). Child Labor and Economic Development, K. F. Zimmermann (Ed.), Handbook of Labor, Human Resources and Population Economics, Springer.

Edmonds, E. V., (2016). Economic Growth and Child Labor in Low Income Economies, GLM|LIC Synthesis Paper No. 3, Bonn: IZA Institute of Labor Economics.

Edmonds, E.V. (2005). Does Child Labor Decline With Improving Economic Status? Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 40 No. 1, sa. 77-99. doi: 10.3368/jhr.XL.1.77

Fallon P., Tzannatos, Z. (1998). Child Labor Issues and Directions for the World Bank, Washington: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development-The World Bank.

Ferrant, G., Pesand, L. M.Keiko, N. (2014). Unpaid Care Work: The Missing Link in the Analysis of Gender Gaps for Labor Outcomes, OECD.

Gentilini, U., (2020). ‘SP Links May 22 – Global Social Protection COVİD-Response Paper v.10, Weekly Social Protection Links.

Hagemann F., Diallo, Y., Etienne, A. Mehran, F. (2006). Global Child Labour Trends 2000 to 2004, Geneva: International Labour Office.

Hou, X. (2009). Wealth: Crucial But Not Sufficient. Evidence from Pakistan On Economic Growth, Child Labor, And Schooling, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 4831, Washington.

Human Rights Watch, (2010), Fields of Peril Child Labor in US Agriculture, New York: Human Rights Watch.

Human Rights Watch, (2021). “I must work to eat”: COVID-19, Poverty, And Child Labor in Ghana, Nepal, and Uganda, Friends of the, Nation, Initiative for, Social, Economic, Rights.

Idris, I. (2020). Impact of COVID-19 on child labour in South Asia. K4D Helpdesk Report 819. Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies. International Labour Organization (ILO), (1973). Erişim adresi: https://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex /en/f?p=normlexpub:12100:0::no::P12100_ilo_code:C138

International Labour Organization (ILO), (1999). Erişim adresi: https://www.ilo.org/ wcmsp5/groups/public/ed_norm/declaration/documents/publication/wcms_decl_fs_46_en.pdf

International Labour Organization (ILO), (2012). Erişim adresi: https://www.ilo.org/ dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:12100:0::NO::P12100_INSTRUMENT_ID:3065524 International Labour Organization (ILO), (2015). Erişim adresi: https://sustainabledevelopment .un.org/content/documents/21252030%20Agenda%20for%20Sustainable%20Development%20web.pdf

International Labour Organization (ILO), (2017). Global Estimates of Child Labour Results and Trends, 2012-2016, Genava: International Labour Organization.

International Labour Organization (ILO), (2020), ‘Social Protection Responses to the COVID-19 Crisis Around the World’, Regularly Updated Dashboard, ILO, Geneva.

International Labour Organization (ILO), (2021). 2020 Third-Party Monitoring Of Child Labour And Forced Labour During The Cotton Harvest İn Uzbekistan, Geneva: ILO.

International Labour Organization (ILO), (2021b). World Social Protection Report 2020–22, Social Protection at The Crossroads – İn Pursuit Of A Better Future, Genava: International Labour Organization.

International Labour Organization and United Nations Children’s Fund (ILO, UNICEF), (2019). Towards Universal Social Protection for Children: Achieving SDG 1.3.

International Labour Organization and United Nations Children’s Fund (ILO, UNICEF), (2021). COVID-19 and Chıld Labour: A Tıme of Crisis, A Time to Act, International Labour Organization and United Nations Children’s Fund, New York.

Johnson, A.F.,K.J. Roberto. (2020). The COVID-19 Pandemic: Time for a Universal Basic Income?, Public Administration and Development 40(4): 232–235.

Kane J., (2009). What the Economic Crisis Means for Child Labour, Global Social Policy, Vol.9, sa.75-1965 doi: 10.1177/1468018109106890

Kar, S.Guha-Khasnobis, B. (2003). Wage Determinationoff Child Labour And Effect Of Trade Reform. Global Prosperity Conference Helsinki, 5–7 September. United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER).

Lakner C., N. Yonzan, D. Gerszon Mahler, R. Aguilar, A.C.Wu, H. (2021). Updated Estimates Of The İmpact Of COVID-19 On Global Poverty: Looking Back At 2020 And The Outlook For 2021, World Bank Blogs.

Lee, S. , Schmidt Klaus Dorothea ve Verick Sher. (2020). The Labour Market Impacts of the COVID 19: A Global Perspective. The Indian Journal of Labour Economics, (ISLE), vol. 63(1), s.11–15. doi: 10.1007/s41027-020-00249-y

McLanahan, S.Percheski, C., (2008). Family Structure and the Reproduction of Inequalities, Annual Review of Sociology, 34, 257-276. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc. 34.040507.134549

Mesquita, W.P.S.P. Souza, (2018). Child Labor and Family Structure: The Role Of Divorce, International Journal of Social Economics, 45(10). doi:10.1108/IJSE-07-2017-0287

Öcal, A.T., (2021), Eğitim ve Yoksulluk Boyutlarıyla COVID-19’un Çocuk İşçiliğine Etkileri, içinde Özlem DEMİR (Ed.), COVID-19 ve Sosyal Politika: Pandemi Sürecinde Yaşanan Sosyo-Politik Sorunlar, Ankara:Ekin Yayınevi, s.109-138.

Quattri, M.K.Watkins,(2016). Child Labour And Education A Survey Of Slum Settlements in Dhaka, Overseas Development Institute.

Radfar, A., Asgharzadeh, S.A., Quesada, F. Filip, I. (2018). Challenges and perspectives of child labor, Industrial Psychiatry Journal, 27(1), 17–20. doi: 10.4103/ipj.ipj_105_14

The Alliance for Child Protection in Humanitarian Action (CPHA), (2020). Technical Note: COVID-19 and Child Labour, https://alliancecpha.org/en/COVİD19childlabour.

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), ILO, (2013). Guidance on addressing child labour in fisheries and aquaculture, The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the International Labour Organization.

U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB), (2021), 2020 Findings on The Worst Forms of Child Labor, ILAB’s Projects at Work. https://www.dol.gov/sites/dolgov/files/ILAB/child_labor_reports/tda2020/2020_TDA_BigBook_Online_optimized.pdf

United Nations (UN), (1967). International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, United Nations. Erişim adresi: https://treaties.un.org/doc/treaties/1976/01/ 19760103%2009-57%20pm/ch_iv_03.pdf United Nations (UN), (1989). Convention on the Rights of the Child, United Nations. Erişim adresi: https://www.ohchr.org/documents/professionalinterest/crc.pdf

United Nations (UN), (2015a). Universal Declaration of Human Rights, United Nations. Erişim adresi: https://www.un.org/en/udhrbook/pdf/udhr_booklet_en_web.pdf

United Nations (UN), (2015b). Transformıng Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustaınable Development, Erişim adresi: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents /21252030%20Agenda%20for%20Sustainable%20Development%20web.pdf.

United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), (2020). Social Protection Response Technical note, Social Policy Section Programme, New York: UNICEF.

United Nations Children’s Fund and Save the Children, (2020). Children in Monetary Poor Households and COVID-19: Technical Note, New York: UNICEF.

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), (2020). Education: From Disruption to Recovery. 18 March 2020.https://en.unesco.org/themes/education-emergencies/ coronavirus-school-closures.

World Vision International, (2020). Act Now: Experiences and recommendations of girls and boys in West Africa during COVID-19. Erişim adresi: https://www.wvi.org/ sites/default/ files/2020-11/5-WV-WARO-Report-29-10-20.pdf

___

APA Kul Parlak, N. & Uludağ Güler, Ç. (2022). COVID-19 GÖLGESİNDE ÇOCUK İŞÇİLİĞİ . Hitit Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi , 15 (1) , 49-66 . DOI: 10.17218/hititsbd.1063687