Yüzyıllardır süregelen paylaşım, günümüz ekonomisinde bir dönüşüm geçirerek değişime alternatif bir yaklaşım haline gelmiştir. Teknolojik gelişimin önemli katkıları olan bu dönüşümle birlikte aile ve komşular arasında gerçekleşen paylaşım etkinliği küresel bir boyut kazanmıştır. Dünyanın dönüşüm içerisinde olduğu bu dönemde turizm endüstrisi de bu alternatif yaklaşımdan etkilenmekte tatil anlayışı değişmektedir. Bu çalışmada paylaşım ekonomisi ve kavramın turizm endüstrisine yansımalarına yönelik kavramsal bir çerçeve ekonomik, çevresel ve sosyo kültürel boyutlarda ele alınmıştır. Çalışma ile az sayıda çalışmanın bulunduğu ulusal alan yazına ve uygulamaya katkı sağlanması amaçlanmaktadır.
The secular sharing activity has become an alternative approach transforming in today’s economy. The sharing activity which had taken place among family and neighbours obtained a global extent with the contribution of technological developments. Tourism industry has been also affected from this alternative in this term which is the World transforms and the sense of travelling has been changed. Therefore, this study aims to draw a conceptual framework about sharing economyand its reflections to tourism industry within the scope of economical, environmental and socio-cultural dimensions. The study targets to contribute to national literature which has a small number of research and practice.
Acuner S. ve Acuner, E. (2017). Turizmde paylaşım ekonomisi ve vergilendirilmesi. Journal of Tourism and Gastronomy Studies, 5(2), 188-212.
Alsever, J. (2013). The “mega trend” that swallowed Silicon Valley, http://fortune.com/2012/10/03/the-mega-trend-that-swallowed-silicon-valley/ Erişim Tarihi: 29.10.2017
Bauwens, M. (2006). The political economy of peer production. Post-Austic Economics Review Journal, 3 (37), 1-11. http://cibersociedad.net/public/k3_arxius_gts/5240_155_oitfccmk_arx_gts.doc Erişim Tarihi: 25.10.2017
Belk, R. (2007). Why not share rather than own? Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 611, 126-140.
Belk, R. (2010). Sharing. Journal of Consumer Research, 36, 715-734.
Belk, R. (2014). You are what you can access: Sharing and collaborative consumption online. Journal of Business Research, 67(8), 1595-1600.
Benkler, Y. (2004). Sharing nicely: on shareable goods and the emergence of sharing as a modality of economic production. Yale Law Journal, 114, 273-358.
Bilgici, Y. (2015). İstanbul’un yeni kurdu: Uber, http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/istanbulun-yeni-kurdu-uber-29761079 Erişim Tarihi: 14.12.2017
Böcker, L. ve Meelen, T. (2017). Sharing for people, planet or profit? Analysing motivations for intended sharing economy participation. Environmental Innovation and Sociteal Transitions, 23, 28-39.
Cannon, S. ve Summers, L. H. (2014). How Uber and the sharing economy can win over regulations. https://hbr.org/2014/10/how-uber-and-the-sharing-economy-can-win-over-regulators Erişim tarihi: 17.10.2017
Cansoy, M. ve Schor, J. (2016). Who gets the share in the sharing economy: Racial discrimination on Airbnb, Working Paper, Boston College. https://www.bc.edu/content/dam/files/schools/cas_sites/sociology/pdf/SharingEconomy.pdf Erişim Tarihi: 04.12.2017
Chen, T.D. ve Kockelman, K.M. (2015). Carsharing’s life-cycle impacts on energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, 94th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board.
Cheng, M. (2016). Current sharing economy media discourse in tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 60, 111-114. Codagnone, C., Biagi, F. ve Abadie, F. (2016). The passions and the interests: unpacking the ‘sharing economy’, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, JRC Science for Policy Report EUR 27914 EN.
Cohen, B. ve Munoz, P. (2016). Sharing cities and sustainable consumption and production: towards an integrated framework. Journal of Cleaner Production, 134, 87-97.
Demirer, D. ve Hassan, A. (2016). Değiş tokuş ve kiralama uygulamalarının konaklama işletmeleri üzerindeki olası etkileri. Anatolia Turizm Araştırmaları Dergisi, 27(1), 43-61.
Derjoveda, K., Verzijl, D., Nagtegaal, F. ve Lengton, M. (2013). The sharing economy. Accessibility based business models for Peer-to-Peer markets, Bruselss: European Commission. file:///C:/Users/user1245/Downloads/12-she-accessibility-based-business-models-for-peer-to-peer-markets_en.pdf Erişim tarihi: 24.10.2017
Edelman, B.G. ve Luca, M. (2014). Digital discrimination: The case of Airbnb.com, Harvard Business School Working Paper, Paper No: 14-054.
Edelman, B.G., Luca, M. ve Svirsky, D. (2016). Racial discrimination in the sharing economy: Evidence from a field experiement, Harvard Business School Working Paper, Paper No: 16-069.
Eurobarometer (2016). Flash Eurobarometer 438: The use of collaborative platforms, http://data.europa.eu/euodp/en/data/dataset/S2112_438_ENG Erişim Tarihi: 18.10.2017 EPRS (2017). Tourism and the sharing economy,
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2017/595897/EPRS_BRI(2017)595897_EN.pdf Erişim Tarihi: 24.10.2017
Ert, E., Fleischer, A. ve Magen, N. (2016). Trust and reputation in the sharing economy: The role of personal photos in Airbnb. Tourism Management, 55, 62-73.
Fang, B., Ye, Q. ve Law, R. (2016). Effect of sharing economy on tourism industry employment. Annals of Tourism Research, 57, 234-278.
Fitzmaurice, C., Ladegaard, I., attwood-Charles, W., Carfagna, L., Cansoy, M., Schor, J. ve Wnegronowitz, R. (2016). Domesticating the market: Moral Exchange and the sharing economy, Unpublished Paper, Boston College.
Frenken, K., Meelen, T., Arets, M. ve Van de Glind, P. (2015). Smarter regulation for the sharing economy, The Guardian Gazetesi (20 Mayıs), https://www.theguardian.com/science/political-science/2015/may/20/smarter-regulation-for-the-sharing-economy Erişim Tarihi: 24.10.2017
Frenken, K. (2017). Political economies and environmental futures fort he sharing economy. Philosophical Transactions, A375, 1-15.
Frenken, K. ve Schor, J. (2017). Putting the sharing economy into perspective. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 23, 3-10.
Geron, T. (2013). Airbnb and unstoppable rise of the share economy, Forbes (11 Şubat), https://www.forbes.com/sites/tomiogeron/2013/01/23/airbnb-and-the-unstoppable-rise-of-the-share-economy/#25238ca2aae3 Erişim Tarihi: 24.10.2017
Guttentag, D. (2015). Airbnb: Disruptive innovation and the rise of an informal tourism accommodation sector. Current Issues in Tourism, 18(12), 1192-1217.
Hamari, J., Sjöklint, M. ve Ukkonen, A. (2016). The sharing economy: Why people participate in collaborative consumption. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 67 (9), 2047-2059.
Heo, C. Y. (2016). Sharing economy and prospects in tourism research. Annals of Tourism Research, 58, 166-170.
Kaplan, A. M. ve Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the World, unite! The challenges and opportunities of social media. Business Horizons, 53, 59-68.
Knight, K. W. ve Schor, J. B. (2014). Economic growth and climate change: A cross-national analysis of territorial and consumption-based carbon emissions in high-income countries. Sustainability, 6, 3722-3731.
Lan, J., Ma, Y., Zhu, D., Mangalagiu, D. ve Thornton, T. F. (2017). Enabling value co-creation in the sharing economy: The case of Mobike. Sustainability, 9, 1-20.
Martin, C. J. (2016). The sharing economy: A pathway to sustainability or a nightmarish from of neoliberal capitalism? Ecological Economics, 121, 149-159.
Meelen, T. ve Frenken, K. (2015). Stop saying Uber is part of the sharing economy, FastEconomy, https://www.fastcompany.com/3040863/stop-saying-uber-is-part-of-the-sharing-economy (14 Ocak) Erişim Tarihi: 24.10.2017
Molz, J.G. (2013). Social networking Technologies and the moral economy of alternative tourism: The case of couchsurfing.org. Annals of Tourism Research, 43, 210-230.
Möhlmann, M. (2015). Collaborative consumption: Determinants of satisfaction and the likelihood of using a sharing economy option again. Journal of Consumer Behavior, 14, 193-207.
Niezgoda, A. (2013). Proconsumers in tourism market: the characteritstics and determinant of their behavior. Poznan University of Economics Review, 13(4), 130-141.
News (2016). New equalities in the sharing economy, https://www.uu.nl/en/news/new-inequalities-in-the-sharing-economy, Erişim Tarihi: 03.11.2017
OECD (2016). Tourism Trends and Policies, http://www.subturismo.gob.cl/wp-content/uploads/sites/18/2015/10/20160229-Tourism-Trends-and-Policies.pdf Erişim Tarihi: 07.11.2017
Overgoor, J., Wulczyn, E. ve Potts, C. (2012). Trust propagation with mixed-effects models, International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media.
Oxford (2017). Sharing economy, https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/sharing_economy Erişim Tarihi: 07.11.2017.
Parigi, P., State, B., Dakhlallah, D., Corten, R. ve Cook, K. (2013). A community of strangers: the dis-embedding of social ties (4 Temmuz), http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0067388 Erişim Tarihi: 24.10.2017
Parigi, P. ve State, B. (2014). Disenchanting the World: The impact of technology on relationships. International Conference on Social Informatics, 8851, 166-182.
Permalink. (2013). Airbnb vs. hotels: a price comparison, https://priceonomics.com/hotels/ Erişim Tarihi: 24.10.2017
Rayna, T. (2008). Understanding the challenges of the digital economy: The natüre of digital goods. Communication & Strategies, 71, 13-16.
Rayna, T. ve Striukova, L. (2016). Involving consumers: The role of digital Technologies in promoting ‘prosumption’ and user innovation. Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13132-016-0390-8.
Resort (2016). Turizmde yeni senaryo, 167. Sayı. http://resortdergisi.com/167/ Erişim Tarihi: 07.11.2017.
Rifkin, J. (2014). The zero marginal cost society, St. Martin’s Griffin: New York.
Ritzer, G. (2014). Prosumption: Evolution, revolution, or eternal return of the same? Journal of Consumer Culture, 14(1), 3-24.
Schor, J. (2014). Debating the sharing economy, http://greattransition.org/publication/debating-the-sharing-economy Erişim Tarihi: 11.11.2017
Schor, J. (2015). The sharing economy: Reports from stage one, Unpublished paper, Boston College.
Schor, J.B. ve Fitzmaurice, C.J. (2015). Collaborating and connecting: The emergence of the sharing economy, İçinde Handbook of research on sustainable consumption (Ed. L. Resich ve J. Thogersen), ss. 410. Edward Elgar, İngiltere.
Schor, J. (2017). Does the sharing economy increas inequality within the eighty percent? Findings from a qualitative study of platform providers. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 10(2), 263-279.
Sharenl (2015). Opportunities and challenges for European cities: Amsterdam sharing city, http://www.sharenl.nl/nieuws/opportunities-and-challenges-for-european-cities-amsterdam-sharing-city Erişim Tarihi: 17.10.2017
Shaw, G., Bailey, A. ve Williams, A. (2011). Aspects of service-dominant logic and its implications for tourism management: Examples from the hotel industry. Tourism Management, 32(2), 207-214.
Skift (2016). Choice hotels eyes an unfamiliar and new upscale market, https://skift.com/2016/10/28/choice-hotels-eyes-an-unfamiliar-and-new-upscale-market/ Erişim Tarihi: 05.11.2017
Sundararajan, A. (2016). The sharing economy, The end of employment and the rise of crowd-based capitalism, MIT Press: Cambridge.
Turizm Güncel (2016). Otelciler ve Airbnb birbirine girdi: Çirkin ve alçakça. http://www.turizmguncel.com/haber/otelciler-ve-airbnb-birbirine-girdi-cirkin-ve-alcakca-h32423.html Erişim Tarihi: 01.11.2017
TurkishTime (2016). Turizme ikinci darbe Airbnb’den mi? http://www.turkishtimedergi.com/turizm/turizme-ikinci-darbe-airbnbden-mi/ Erişim tarihi: 01.11.2017.
Tussyadiah, I.P ve Pesonen, J. (2015). Impacts of peer-to-peer accommodation use on travel patterns. Journal of Travel Research, 55(8), 1022-1040.
Tussyadiah, I.P. (2015). An exploratory study on drivers and deterrents of collaborative consumption in travel, Proceedings of the International Conference in Lugano, Switzerland, 3-6 Şubat.
Uber (2015). Uber and Hilton team up for seamless travel, https://newsroom.uber.com/hilton/ Erişim tarihi: 02.11.2017 Erişim Tarihi: 18.10.2017
Uber (2017). Yaz keyfini Uber’le çıkarın, https://www.uber.com/tr/blog/yaz-keyfini-uberle-cikarin/ Erişim Tarihi: 14.12.2017
Vargo, S.L. ve Lusch, R.F. (2008). Service-dominant logic: Continuing the evolution. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 36(1), 1-10.
Williamson, O. E: (1981). The economics of organization: The transaction cost approach. American Journal of Sociology, 87 (3), 548-577.
Woolf, N. (2016). Airbnb regulation deal with London and Amsterdam marks dramatic policy shift, https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/dec/03/airbnb-regulation-london-amsterdam-housing Erişim Tarihi: 08.11.02017
Young, A. E. (2015). How the sharing economy (mis)shaping the future, https://www.hotel-online.com/press_releases/release/how-the-sharing-economy-is-misshaping-the-future Erişim Tarihi: 22.10.2017
Zervas, G., Proserpio, D. ve Byers, J. (2014). The rise of the sharing economy: Estimating the impact on Airbnb on the hotel industry, Boston University School of Management, Reserach Paper No: 2013-16.
Zervas, G., Proserpio, D. ve Byers, J. (2015). A first look at online reputation on Airbnb, where stay is above average, http://www-bcf.usc.edu/~proserpi/papers/airbnbreputation.pdf Erişim Tarihi: 24.10.2017.