Derin Ekoloji Yaklaşımının Ahimsa Öğretisi’ndeki Yansımaları

Çevresel krizlerin yaşanması ve doğanın tahrip edilmesi, doğa ve insan ilişkilerinin yeniden düzenlenmesini ve sorgulanmasını beraberinde getirmiştir. Kaynakların aşırı tüketimi, doğal kaynakların tükenmesi, insan olmayan canlı ve/veya cansız varlıkların geri planda bırakılması gibi durumlar insanlığın doğayla uyum içinde yaşaması gerekliliğini tartışmaya açmıştır. İnsan ve doğa arasındaki ilişkinin karşılıklılık ilkesiyle ilerlemesi gerektiğine vurgu yapan derin ekoloji hareketi, ekolojik yıkımdan tüm insanlığın sorumlu olduğunu belirtmektedir. Bütüncül bir bakış açısıyla derin ekoloji, canlı ve/veya cansız tüm varlıkların doğuştan gelen bir öz değeri olduğunu savunmaktadır. Caynizm inancının merkezinde yer alan ahimsa prensibi, derin ekoloji yaklaşımıyla birçok ortak yönü paylaşmaktadır. Ahimse prensibi özellikle şiddetsiz bir yaşamın benimsenmesi, hiçbir canlı ve/veya cansız varlığa zarar verilmemesi üzerine kurulmuştur. Caynizm inancında yer alan, doğa ile olan her türlü ilişki biçimine özen gösterilmesi ve şiddetsiz bir yaşamı savunan Ahimsa öğretisinde derin ekolojinin izleri görülmektedir. Bu çalışmada da, derin ekoloji yaklaşımı ekseninde Caynizm’deki Ahimsa Öğretisi’ne yer verilmesi amaçlanmaktadır.

Reflections of Deep Ecology Approach in the Ahimsa Doctrine

Experiencing environmental crises and destruction of nature brought along the reorganization and questioning of nature and human relations. Conditions such as excessive consumption of resources, depletion of natural resources, leaving non-human living and/or inanimate beings in the background have opened the way for humanity to be in harmony with nature. Emphasizing that the relationship between human and nature should proceed with the principle of reciprocity, the deep ecology movement states that all humanity is responsible for ecological destruction. From a holistic point of view, deep ecology advocates that all living and/or inanimate beings have an innate core value. The principle of ahimsa, which is at the center of the belief of Jainism, shares many common aspects with its deep ecology approach. The principle of ahimsa is based on the adoption of a nonviolent life and no harm to any living and/or inanimate being. The traces of deep ecology are seen in Ahimsa teachings, which are in the belief of Jainism, paying attention to every kind of relationship with nature, and advocating a life without violence. In this study, it is aimed to include Ahimsa Teachings in Jainism on the axis of the deep ecology approach.

Kaynakça

Benson, J. (2000). Environmental ethics: An ıntroduction with readings. New York and London: Routledge.

Benson, J. (2000). Environmental ethics: An ıntroduction with readings. New York and London: Routledge.

Bhaneja, B. (2007). Understanding Gandhi’s Ahimsa (Non-Violence): Reflection on an Autobiography, the Story of My Experiments with Truth. Resen has Book reviews. Retrieved from http://www.nightslantern.ca/gandhiasteriskos.pdf

Bhaneja, B. (2007). Understanding Gandhi’s Ahimsa (Non-Violence): Reflection on an Autobiography, the Story of My Experiments with Truth. Resen has Book reviews. Retrieved from http://www.nightslantern.ca/gandhiasteriskos.pdf

Bookchin, M. (1964). Ecology and revolutionary thought. The Anarchist Library.

Bookchin, M. (1964). Ecology and revolutionary thought. The Anarchist Library.

Bronkhorst, J. (2010). Reflections on the history of Jainism. International Conference on Jainism Through the Ages: An Historical Perspective, Mysore.

Bronkhorst, J. (2010). Reflections on the history of Jainism. International Conference on Jainism Through the Ages: An Historical Perspective, Mysore.

Bush, E. (2017). Review of the book Ahimsa, by Supriya Kelkar. Bulletin of the Center for Children's Books, 71 (3), 119-120. doi:10.1353/bcc.2017.0783.

Bush, E. (2017). Review of the book Ahimsa, by Supriya Kelkar. Bulletin of the Center for Children's Books, 71 (3), 119-120. doi:10.1353/bcc.2017.0783.

Canlı, M. (2017). Kutsal Metinler Bağlamında Çevre ve Din İlişkisinin Sosyolojik Analizi (Yüksek Lisans Tezi). Cumhuriyet Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Sivas.

Canlı, M. (2017). Kutsal Metinler Bağlamında Çevre ve Din İlişkisinin Sosyolojik Analizi (Yüksek Lisans Tezi). Cumhuriyet Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Sivas.

Cort, J. E. (2010). Framing the jina. Narratives of icons and idols in Jain history. Oxford University Press.

Cort, J. E. (2010). Framing the jina. Narratives of icons and idols in Jain history. Oxford University Press.

Deane-Drummond, C., Strohm, H. B. (2011). Religion and ecology in the public sphere. London: Continuum.

Deane-Drummond, C., Strohm, H. B. (2011). Religion and ecology in the public sphere. London: Continuum.

Dundas, P. (2005). Jainism. In Encyclopedia of Religion (Ed. Lindsay Jones). New York: Thomson Gale.

Dundas, P. (2005). Jainism. In Encyclopedia of Religion (Ed. Lindsay Jones). New York: Thomson Gale.

Dundas, P. (2002). The Jains (Second edition). London & New York: Routledge.

Dundas, P. (2002). The Jains (Second edition). London & New York: Routledge.

Elkins, S. (1994). Mistik Ekolojik Politika (Çev: Sevda Alankuş Kural). Birikim Dergisi, 57-58, 75-86.

Elkins, S. (1994). Mistik Ekolojik Politika (Çev: Sevda Alankuş Kural). Birikim Dergisi, 57-58, 75-86.

Flügel, P. (2006). Jainism and Society. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 69 (1), 91-112. doi: 10.1017/S0041977X0600005X.

Flügel, P. (2006). Jainism and Society. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 69 (1), 91-112. doi: 10.1017/S0041977X0600005X.

Flügel, P. (2005). The Invention of Jainism: A Short History of Jaina Studies. Journal of Jaina Studies (Kyoto), 11, 1–19.

Flügel, P. (2005). The Invention of Jainism: A Short History of Jaina Studies. Journal of Jaina Studies (Kyoto), 11, 1–19.

Giddens, A. (2010). Modernliğin sonuçları. İstanbul: Ayrıntı Yayınları.

Giddens, A. (2010). Modernliğin sonuçları. İstanbul: Ayrıntı Yayınları.

Görmez, K. (2020). Çevre sorunları (5. Baskı). Ankara: Nobel Yayınevi.

Görmez, K. (2020). Çevre sorunları (5. Baskı). Ankara: Nobel Yayınevi.

Harari, Y. N. (2015). Hayvanlardan tanrılara sapiens. İstanbul: Kolektif Kitap.

Harari, Y. N. (2015). Hayvanlardan tanrılara sapiens. İstanbul: Kolektif Kitap.

Kanagy, C. L., Willits, F. K. (1993). A Greening of Religion? Some Evidence From A Pennsylvania Sample. Social Science Quarterly, 74, 674–683.

Kanagy, C. L., Willits, F. K. (1993). A Greening of Religion? Some Evidence From A Pennsylvania Sample. Social Science Quarterly, 74, 674–683.

Kırışık, F. (2013). Ekolojik Sorunların Çözümünde Derin Ekoloji Yaklaşımı. Ekonomik ve Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi, 9 (2), 279-301.

Kırışık, F. (2013). Ekolojik Sorunların Çözümünde Derin Ekoloji Yaklaşımı. Ekonomik ve Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi, 9 (2), 279-301.

Kovan, M. (2009). Violence and Non-Resistance: Buddhist Ahimsa and Its Existential Aporias. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 16, 39-68.

Kovan, M. (2009). Violence and Non-Resistance: Buddhist Ahimsa and Its Existential Aporias. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 16, 39-68.

Lowie, R. (1970). Primitive religion. New York: Liverlight Publishing.

Lowie, R. (1970). Primitive religion. New York: Liverlight Publishing.

Malik, M., Abbas, R. Z., Ashraf, M., Rehman, C. A., Ahmad, Z. A. (2011). Gandhi’s Ahimsa- A Critical Review At The Critical Time of War Against Terrorism. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2 (12), 114-119.

Malik, M., Abbas, R. Z., Ashraf, M., Rehman, C. A., Ahmad, Z. A. (2011). Gandhi’s Ahimsa- A Critical Review At The Critical Time of War Against Terrorism. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2 (12), 114-119.

Maltaş, A. (2015). Ekoloji Ekseninde İnsan-Doğa İlişkisi ve Özne Sorunu. KMÜ Sosyal ve Ekonomik Araştırmalar Dergisi, 17 (29), 1-8.

Maltaş, A. (2015). Ekoloji Ekseninde İnsan-Doğa İlişkisi ve Özne Sorunu. KMÜ Sosyal ve Ekonomik Araştırmalar Dergisi, 17 (29), 1-8.

Montano, O. J. F. (2006). Ecology for Whom? Deep Ecology and The Death of Anthropocentrism. Opcion, 22 (50), 181-197.

Montano, O. J. F. (2006). Ecology for Whom? Deep Ecology and The Death of Anthropocentrism. Opcion, 22 (50), 181-197.

Naess, A. (1986). The Deep Ecology Movement: Some Philosophical Aspects. Philosophical Inquiry, 8, 10–31.

Naess, A. (1986). The Deep Ecology Movement: Some Philosophical Aspects. Philosophical Inquiry, 8, 10–31.

Plumwood, V. (1986). Ecofeminism: An Overview and Discussion of Positions and Arguments. Australasian Journal of Philosophy, 64, 120-138.

Plumwood, V. (1986). Ecofeminism: An Overview and Discussion of Positions and Arguments. Australasian Journal of Philosophy, 64, 120-138.

Prana, S. (2003). Ahimsa: The practice of non-violence. Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia.

Prana, S. (2003). Ahimsa: The practice of non-violence. Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia.

Radin, P. (1957). Primitive religion. New York: Dover.

Radin, P. (1957). Primitive religion. New York: Dover.

Reynolds, V., Ralph, T. (1995). The social ecology of religion. New York: Oxford University Press.

Reynolds, V., Ralph, T. (1995). The social ecology of religion. New York: Oxford University Press.

Ronan, M. (2017). Religion and the environment: Twenty-first century American evangelicalism and the anthropocene. Humanities, 6 (4), 1-15. doi:10.3390/h6040092.

Ronan, M. (2017). Religion and the environment: Twenty-first century American evangelicalism and the anthropocene. Humanities, 6 (4), 1-15. doi:10.3390/h6040092.

Shaiko, R. G. (1987). Religion, politics, and environmental concern: A powerful mix of passions. Social Science Quarterly, 68, 244–262.

Shaiko, R. G. (1987). Religion, politics, and environmental concern: A powerful mix of passions. Social Science Quarterly, 68, 244–262.

Sharma, V. K. (2011). History of Jainism, with special reference to mathurā. New Delhi: D. K. Printworld.

Sharma, V. K. (2011). History of Jainism, with special reference to mathurā. New Delhi: D. K. Printworld.

Shibley, M. A., Wiggins, J. L. (1997). The greening of mainline american religion: A sociological analysis of the environmental ethics of the national religious partnership for the environment. Social Compass, 44, 333–348.

Shibley, M. A., Wiggins, J. L. (1997). The greening of mainline american religion: A sociological analysis of the environmental ethics of the national religious partnership for the environment. Social Compass, 44, 333–348.

Smith, W., Gough, A. (2015). Deep ecology as a framework for student eco-philosophical thinking. Journal of Philosophy in Schools, 2 (1), 69-86.

Smith, W., Gough, A. (2015). Deep ecology as a framework for student eco-philosophical thinking. Journal of Philosophy in Schools, 2 (1), 69-86.

Tamkoç, G. (1994). Derin ekolojinin genel çizgileri. Birikim Dergisi, 57-58, 87-91.

Tamkoç, G. (1994). Derin ekolojinin genel çizgileri. Birikim Dergisi, 57-58, 87-91.

Taylor, B. (2005). Religious Studies and Environmental Concern. In encyclopedia of religion and nature. London & New York: Continuum.

Taylor, B. (2005). Religious Studies and Environmental Concern. In encyclopedia of religion and nature. London & New York: Continuum.

Temesgen, S. A., Ahmed, I. (2017). The application of ındian tradition of ahimsa in modern politics: Conceptual analysis on the foundations of hard power and immorality in national and international politics. Review of European Studies, 9 (2), 158-169.

Temesgen, S. A., Ahmed, I. (2017). The application of ındian tradition of ahimsa in modern politics: Conceptual analysis on the foundations of hard power and immorality in national and international politics. Review of European Studies, 9 (2), 158-169.

Ünal, V. (2010). Çevre Sorunları ve Dindarlık İlişkisi: Kayseri Örneği (Doktora Tezi). Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Konya.

Ünal, V. (2010). Çevre Sorunları ve Dindarlık İlişkisi: Kayseri Örneği (Doktora Tezi). Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Konya.

Veldman, R. G., Szasz, A., Haluza-DeLay, R. (2014). How the world’s religions are responding to climate change: Social scientific investigations. New York: Routledge.

Veldman, R. G., Szasz, A., Haluza-DeLay, R. (2014). How the world’s religions are responding to climate change: Social scientific investigations. New York: Routledge.

Wilkinson, K. K. (2012). Between god and green: How evangelicals are cultivating a middle ground on climate change. New York: Oxford University Press.

Wilkinson, K. K. (2012). Between god and green: How evangelicals are cultivating a middle ground on climate change. New York: Oxford University Press.

Yitik, A. İ. (2007). Caynizm. Yaşayan dünya dinleri (Ed. Şinasi Gündüz). İstanbul: Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı Yayınları.

Yitik, A. İ. (2007). Caynizm. Yaşayan dünya dinleri (Ed. Şinasi Gündüz). İstanbul: Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı Yayınları.

Kaynak Göster

APA Kara, Y , Saroğlu, H . (2021). Reflections of Deep Ecology Approach in the Ahimsa Doctrine . Gaziantep University Journal of Social Sciences , 20 (2) , 362-371 . DOI: 10.21547/jss.832444