This paper analyses the emergence of human trafficking as a concept within public international law and the ensuing genesis of an applicable legal framework seeking to address the issue. Even though international law defined human trafficking in 2000 under the Trafficking Protocol, its definition has not resolved the many definitional debates in terms of distinguishing ‘trafficking’ from related phenomena; i.e, slavery, smuggling and enslavement which is addressed as a ‘catch-all term’ including trafficking in the context of crime against humanity in the Rome Statute. Thus, this paper looks at only transnational criminal law aspect of trafficking crimes in relation to the definitional debates around human trafficking and crimes against humanity, by asking the following questions: Taking into account of the transnational criminal aspect of human trafficking how this phenomenon is regulated under international law? Is it regulated as one of the crimes against humanity in the context of Rome Statute considering its enslavement regulation that addresses trafficking crimes in its related clause? In sum, this paper not only looks at the international legal rules, but also it critically reviews them to help address how human trafficking is defined and how it is placed within the context of international legal regulations.
Bu çalışma, insan ticaretinin uluslararası kamu hukukunda kavramsal olarak doğuşunu ve uluslararası hukuktaki uygulanabilir ilgili kuralların insan ticaretini düzenleme açısından ortaya çıkışını incelemektedir. Bu çalışmada belirtildiği üzere, uluslararası hukuk, insan ticaretini 2000 yılında İnsan Ticareti Protokolü ile tanımlamış olsa da, Protokol’de yapılan tanım, tanımsal meseleye ilişkin olarak ortaya çıkan tartışmalar ekseninde ‘insan ticareti’ bağlantılı diğer kavramlardan, örneğin, kölelik, kaçakçılık ve Roma Statüsü içeriğinde insan ticaretini de kapsayıcı olacak şekilde düzenlenmiş olan köleliştirme kavramından, insan ticareti olgusunu ayırma hususunda bir çözüm getirememiştir. Bu çalışma, insan ticaretinin sınıraşan suçlar boyutu bağlamında, insanlığa karşı suç kavramı etrafında tanımsal yönden inceleme yaparken, takip eden soruları sormaktadır: Sınıraşan suç boyutu göz önünde bulundurulduğunda, insan ticareti uluslararası hukukta nasıl düzenlenmiştir? Roma Statüsü’nün köleleştirme maddesi kapsamında insan ticaretinin bahsi geçtiği üzere, insanlığa karşı suçlardan birisi olarak düzenlenmiş olduğu mu kabul edilmelidir? Görüldüğü üzere, insanlığa karşı suç kavramı ile ilintili tanımsal inceleme kapsamında, bu çalışma yalnızca insan ticareti ve insanlığa karşı suç ile ilgili uluslararası hukuk kurallarını değil, bu tartışma üzerinden bahsi geçen hukuk kurallarının, insan ticaretini nasıl tanımladığını ve dolayısıyla bu olgunun uluslararası hukukta yerinin nasıl konumlandırıldığını kritik bir bakış açısı ile ortaya koymaktadır.
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