YENİDEN YAPILANMACI YAHUDİLİK HAREKETİNİN ORTAYA ÇIKIŞ SEBEPLERİ VE TEMEL HEDEFLERİ

Yeniden Yapılanmacı Yahudilik, XX. yüzyılda ABD’de Yahudi filozof, eğitimci ve sosyolog Mordecai Menahem Kaplan’ın (1881-1983) fikirleri ve eylemleriyle ortaya çıkıp gelişen bir dini harekettir. XVIII. yüzyıldan itibaren Aydınlanma Hareketi, Yahudi toplumu üzerinde farklı şekillerde etkiler bırakmıştır. Kaplan’a göre, modernizme kadar Yahudiler herhangi bir sorun ile karşılaşmadan geleneksel inançlarına bağlı olarak yaşamışlardır. Ancak modernite, geleneksel Yahudi inançlarında ve pratiklerinde tahribatlara yol açmıştır. Modernizmin politik, ekonomik ve ideolojik etkileriyle Yahudiler geleneksel inançlarından şüphe duymaya başlamışlardır. Yahudiler, geleneksel yaşam tarzı ile modern yaşam tarzı arasında sıkışıp kalmışlardır. Bunu bir kriz olarak adlandıran Kaplan, Amerika’da mevcut olan Yahudi hareketlerin (Reformist, Neo-Ortodoks ve Muhafazakâr) hiçbirisinin bu krize çözüm üretmediklerini ileri sürmüştür. Buradan hareketle Yahudileri yaşadıkları krize bir çözüm getirmek ve modern ile geleneksel Yahudi yaşamı arasında uyumu sağlamak için Yeniden Yapılanma Programı önermiştir. Yahudiliği sadece bir din olarak değil; bir medeniyet olarak gören yeni bir Yahudilik tanımına dayanan bu programın temel hedefleri; Yahudiliği krizden çıkarmak, Yahudi medeniyetini korumak, Yahudi dinini ihya etmek, Yahudiliği doğaüstü anlayıştan kurtarmak ve Yahudi toplumunun varlığını korumaktır.

The Reasons for the Emergence of the Reconstructionist Judaism Movement and Its Main Goals

Reconstructionist Judaism is the religios movement which emerged and developed through the ideas and actions of Mordecai Menahem Kaplan, Jewish philosopher, educator and sociologist, in USA in the XXth century. Since the XVIIIth century, Englighment Movement has different effects on the Jewish community. According to Kaplan, Jews lived by adhering to their traditional beliefs without encountered any problems until Modern Age. However, modernity has given rise to the corruptions on traditional Jewish beliefs and practices. Jews have begun to doubt about their beliefs due to modernism’s political, economical and ideological effects. Jews have got stuck in between the traditional lifestyle tand he modern lifestyle. Kaplan calls as crisis this situation and he suggest that none of the Jewish movements (Reformist, Neo-Orthodox, Conservative) in America have produced a solution to this crisis. From this point of view, he proposes the reconstructionist program to find a way out to crisis and to comply with between modern and traditional Jewish lifestyle. This program makes a new definition for Judaism. According to the new definition, Judaism is not only a religion; but also it is a civilization. This program’s goals following: to resolve the Judaism's crisis, provide the survival of the Judaism civilization, revitalize the Jewish religion, recover Judaism from the supernatural concept, and preserve the existence of the Jewish community.

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