Öz West Nile fever (WNF) is a zoonotic disease, occurring nearly globally. Birds are important host species of West nile virus. West nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne viral disease. Although West Nile Virus causes an asymptomatic infection, especially it can cause neurologic disorders in humans, birds and horses. In this study, blood samples were randomly collected from domestic birds (chicken, duck, goose and turkey). The material consisted of 736 domestic birds, including 394 geese, 129 ducks, 117 turkeys and 96 chickens, from Samsun province in northern Turkey. The serum samples were analysed for the presence of antibodies to WNV using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA). Seropositivity rates in chickens, ducks, geese and turkeys were detected as 3.1%, 0.8%, 1.8% and 17.9% for WNV. Out of 736 serum samples examined, 32 (4.3%) were positive for WNV. The results, recorded for the first time for WNV in Turkey, supported the hypothesis that domestic bird act as a potential reservoir of WNV, and thus have a role in the epidemiology of these diseases.
1. Albayrak H., Ozan E., 2010. Molecular detection of avian influenza virus but not West Nile virus in wild birds in northern Turkey. Zoonoses Public Health, 57, e71-e75. 2. Albayrak H., Ozan E., 2013. Seroepidemiological study of West Nile virus and Rift Valley fever virus in some of mammalian species (Herbivores) in northern Turkey. J Arthropod-Borne Dis, 7, 90-93. 3. Bagheri M., Terenius O., Oshaghi MA., Motazakker M., Asgari S., Dabiri F., Vatandoost H., Mohammadi BM., Chavshin AR., 2015. West Nile virus in mosquitoes of Iranian Wetlands. Vector-Borne Zoonot Dis, 15, 750-754. 4. Burke DS., Monath TP., 2001. Flaviviruses. In “Fields Virology”, Eds., DM Knipe, PM Howley, 4th ed., 1043– 1126, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia. 5. Dauphin G., Zientara S., 2007. West Nile virus: recent trends in diagnosis and vaccine development. Vaccine, 25, 5563- 5576. 6. Dik B., Yagcı S., Linton YM., 2006. A review of species diversity and distribution of Culicoides Latreille, 1809 (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Turkey. J Nat Hist, 40, 1947-1967. 7. Ergunay K., Saygan MB., Aydogan S., Menemenlioglu D., Turan HM., Ozkul A., Us D., 2007a. West Nile virus seroprevalance in blood donors from central Anatolia, Turkey. Vector Borne Zoonot Dis, 7, 157-161. 8. Ergunay K., Ozer N., Us D., Ozkul A., Simsek F., Kaynas S., Ustacelebi S., 2007b Seroprevalance of West Nile virus and tick-borne encephalitis virus in southeastern Turkey: First evidence for tick-borne encephalitis virus infections. Vector Borne Zoonot Dis, 10, 771-775. 9. Ergunay K., Bakonyi T., Nowotny N., Ozkul A., 2015. Close relationship between West Nile virus from Turkey and lineage 1 strain from Central African Republic. Emerg Infect Dis, 21, 352-355. 10. Gazi H., Özkütük N., Ecemis T., Atasoylu G., Köroglu G., Kurutepe S., Horasan GD., 2016. Seroprevalence of west nile virus, crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Francisella tularensis and Borrelia burgdorferi in rural population of manisa, western Turkey. J Vector Borne Dis, 53, 112-117. 11. Hubalek Z., Halouzka J., 1999. West Nile fever – a reemerging mosquito-borne viral disease in Europe. Emerg Infect Dis, 5, 643-650. 12. OIE, 1999. Office International des Epizooties. West Nile fever in Israel in geese. Disease Information, 12, 166 13. OIE, 2000. Office International des Epizooties. West Nile fever in the United States of America: in horses. Disease Information, 13, 150–151 14. OIE, 2015. The World Organisation for Animal Health. West Nile fever. Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals 2013.Volume 1, Part 2 15. Ozkul A., Yıldırım Y., Pinar D., Akcali A., Yilmaz V., Colak D., 2006. Serological evidence of West Nile virus (WNV) in mammalian species in Turkey. Epidemiol Infect, 134, 826–829. 16. Padilla JA., Rubio EL., Romero EE., Cordoba L., Cuevas S., Mejia F., Calderon R., Milian F., Rosa ATD., Weaver SC., Franco JGE., Saiz JC., 2009. The continous spread of west nile virus (WNV): seroprevalance in asymptomatic horses. Epidemiol Infect, 137, 1163-1168. 17. Swayne DE., Beck JR., Smith CS., Shieh WJ., Zaki SR., 2001. Fatal encephalitis and myocarditis in young domestic geese (Anser anser domesticus) caused by West Nile virus. Emerg Infect Dis, 7, 751-753. 18. Thomas-Bachli AL., Pearl DL., Berke O., Parmley EJ., Barker IK., 2017. A geographic study of West Nile virus in humans, dead corvids and mosquitoes in Ontario using spatial scan statistics with a survival time application. Zoonoses Public Health, 00, 1-9. 19. Toplu N., Oğuzoğlu TÇ., Ural K., Albayrak H., Ozan E., Ertürk A., Epikmen ET., 2015. West Nile virus infection in horses: Detection by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and ELISA. Vet Pathol, 52, 1073-1076. 20. Yazici Z., Albayrak H., Ozan E., Gumusova S., 2012. The first investigation of West Nile virus in horses using real time RT-PCR in Middle Black Sea Region in Turkey. J Arthropod-Borne Dis, 6, 151-155.