Antiviral İlaçlar

Tarih boyunca viral hastalıklar epidemiler veya pandemiler meydana getirerek, insanoğlunu ve onunla etkileşim 

Antiviral Drug

Throughout history, viral diseases have always threatened lives of all humans and living beings in contact with them causing epidemics and pandemics. These epidemics that caused death or destruction of millions of living beings also brought about the need for protection and treatment. Technological and health opportunities that started to develop at the beginning of the 20st century made it possible to convey studies and research on treatment of viral diseases. In this composition, information has been provided about antiviral agents developed to be used in treatment of viral infections threatening human and animal health. 

Antiviral drug, virus,


Adalsteinsson JA, Pan M, Kaushik S, Ungar J, (2018). Foscarnet-induced genital lesions: An overview with a case report. Dermatol Reports.10, 12-13.

Adams J, Patel N, Mankaryous N, Tadros M, Miller CD, (2010). Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Resistance and the Role of the Second-Generation Agents. Ann Pharmacother. 44, 157–165.

Agbowuro AA, Huston WM, Gamble AB, Tyndall JDA, (2018). Proteases and protease inhibitors in infectious dis- eases. Med Res Rev. 38, 1295-1331.

Air GM, (2012), İnfluenza neuraminidase. İnfluenza Other Respir Virus. 6,245-256.

Al-Badr AA, Ajarim TDS, (2018). Ganciclovir. Brittin HG. Eds. Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients and Related Methodology vol 43. Academic Press Inc, USA, 1-208.

Andrei G, Sienaert R, McGuigan C, De Clercq E, Balzarini J, Snoeck R, (2005). Susceptibilities of several clinical varicella-zoster virus (VZV) isolates and drug-resistant VZV strains to bicyclic furano pyrimidinenucleosides, Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 49, 1081–1086.

Angus P, Vaughan R, Xıong S, Yang H, Delaney W, Gibbs C, Brosgart C, Colledge D, Edwards R, Ayres A, Bartholomeusz A, Locarnini S, (2003). Resistance to Adefovir Dipivoxil Therapy Associated With the Selection of a Novel Mutation in the HBV Polymerase. Gastroenterology. 125, 292-297.

Arslan U, Ural O, Fındık D, (2008). Lamivudin tedavisi alan kronik hepatit B olgularında inno-lipa HBV DR yöntemi ile saptanan YMDD motif değişiklikleri, Mikrobiyol Bul. 42, 445-450.

Berkhout B, Eggink D, Sanders RW, (2012). Is there a future for antiviral fusion inhibitors.

Białek-Pietras M, Olejniczak AB, Paradowska E, Studzinska M, Jabłonska A, Lesnikowski ZJ, (2018). Synthesis, suscep- tibility to enzymatic phosphorylation, cytotoxicity and in vitro antiviral activity of lipophilic pyrimidine nucleoside/ carborane conjugates. J Organomet Chem. 865, 166-172.

Chang T, Gish R, De Man R, (2006). A comparison of ente- cavir and lamivudine for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B. N. Engl. J. Med. 354, 1001-1010. 12. Charpentier C, Camacho R, Ruelle J, Eberle J, Gurtler L, Pironti A, Sturmer M, Brun-Vezinet F, Kaiser R, Descamps D, Obermeier M, (2015). HIV-2EU-supporting standard- ized HIV-2 drug-resistance interpretation in Europe: an update. Clin Infect Dis. 61, 1346-1347.

. Chou TY, Hong BY, (2014). Ganciclovir ophthalmic gel %0.15 for the treatment of acute herpetic keratitis: back- ground, effectiveness, tolerability, safety, and future appli- cations. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 10, 665–681.

Cihlar T, Ray AS, (2010). Nucleoside and nucleotide HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitors: 25 years after zidovudine. Antiviral Res. 85,39-58. Curr OpinVirol. 2, 50-59. 15. Curran M, Noble S, (2001). Valganciclovir. Drugs. 61, 1145–1150.

D’Cruz OJ, Uckun FM, (2006). Dawn of non-nucleoside inhibitor-based anti-HIV microbicides. J Antimicrob Chemother. 57,411–423.

. Das K, Arnold E, (2013). HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and antiviral drug resistance. Part 1. Curr Opin Virol. 3,111- 118.

De Clercq E, (2009). Looking back in 2009 at the dawning of antiviral therapy now 50 years ago: An historical per- spective. Adv Virus Res. 73, 1-53.

De Clercq E, Li G, (2016). Approved antiviral drugs over the last 50 years. Clin Microbiol Rev. 29, 695-747. 20. De Clercq, (2004). Discovery and development of BVDU (brivudin) as a therapeutic for the treatment of herpes zos- ter. Biochem Pharmacol. 68, 2301-2315.

De Leuw P, C Stephen, (2018). Protease inhibitor therapy for hepatitis C virus-infection. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 19, 577–587.

De Miguel R, Montejano R, Stella-Ascaris N, Arribas JR, (2017). A safety evaluation of raltegravir for the treatment of HIV. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 17, 217-223.

Dienstag JL, Goldin RD, Heathcote EJ, Hann HWL, Woessner M, Stephenson SL, Gardner S, Gray DF, Schiff ER, (2003). Histological Outcome During Long-term Lamivudine Therapy. Gastroenterology. 124, 105-17.

Dingens AS, Arenz D, Overbaugh J, Bloom JD, (2018). Massively parallel profiling of HIV-1 resistance to the fu- sion inhibitor enfuvirtide. BioRxiv 472746, Erişim tarihi: 06.12.2018.

Diogo JV, Novo SG, Gonzalez MJ, Ciancia M, Bratanich AC, (2015). Antiviral activity of lambda-carrageenan pre- pared from red seaweed (Gigartina skottsbergii) against BoHV-1 and SuHV-1, Res Vet Sci. 98,142-144. 26. Este JA, Telenti A, (2007). HIV entry inhibitors. Lancet, 370, 81-88.

Fontenelle JP, Powell CC, Veir KJ, Radecki SV, Lappin RM, (2008). Effect of topical ophthalmic application of cidofovir on experimentally induced primary ocular feline herpesvirus-1 infection in cats. Am J Vet Res. 69, 289-293.

. Groth DA, Contreras MT, Kado-Fong HK, Nguyen KQ, Thomasy SM, Maggs DJ, (2014). In vitro cytotoxicity and antiviral efficacy against feline herpesvirus type 1 of fam- ciclovir and its metabolites. Vet Ophthalmol. 17, 268-274.

Hamann M, Hill R, Roggo S, (2007). Marine natural prod- ucts. Key advances to the practical application of this re- source in drug development. Chimia. 61, 313-321.

. Hammer KDP, Dietz J, Lo TS, Johnson ME, (2018). A sys- tematic review on the efficacy of topical acyclovir, penci- clovir, and docosanol for the treatment of herpes simplex labialis. EMJ Dermatol, 6, 118-123.

Hayashi N, Nakamuta M, Takehara T, Kumada H, Takase A, Howe AY, Ludmerer SW, Mobashery N, (2016). Vaniprevir plus peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin in treatment-naive Japanese patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infec- tion: a randomized phase III study. Gastroenterology. 51, 390-403.

Hazuda DJ, Young SD, Guare JP, Anthony NJ, Gomez RP, Wai JS, Vacca JP, Handt L, Motzel SL, Klein HJ, Dornadula G, Danovich RM, Witmer MV, Wilson KA, Tussey L, Schleif WA, Gabryelski LS, Jin L, Miller MD, Casimiro DR, Emini EA, Shiver JW (2004). Integrase inhibitors and cellularimmunity suppress retroviral replication in rhesus macaques. Sci.305, 528-532.

Heim MH, (2013). 25 years of interferon-based treatment of chronic hepatitis C: An epoch coming to an end. Nat Rev Immunol. 13, 535-542.

Hussein İTM, Menashy RV, Field HJ, (2008). Penciclovir is a potent inhibitor of feline herpesvirus-1 with susceptibility determined at the level of virus-encoded thymidine kinase. Antiviral Res. 3, 268-274.

. Ikeda T, Tennyson R, Walker SN, Harris RS, McNaughton B (2019): Evolved Proteins Inhibit Entry of Enfuvirtide- Resistant HIV-1, ACS Infect Dis (Article ASAP), DOI: 10.1021/acsinfecdis.8b00362.

Ison MG, (2013). Clinical use of approved influenza an- tivirals: therapy and prophylaxis. Influenza Other Respi Viruses. 7, 7–13.

Jacob A, Sood R, Chanu KV, Bhatia S, Khandia R, Pateriya AK, Nagarajan S, Dimri U, Kulkarni DD, (2016). Amantadine resistance among highly pathogenic avian in- fluenza viruses (H5N1) isolated from India, Microb Pathog. 91, 35-40.

Kamali A, Holodniy M, (2013). Influenza treatment and prophylaxis with neuraminidase inhibitors: a review. İnfect Drug Resist. 6, 187-198. 39. Kozakov D, Chuang GY, Beglov D, Vajda S, (2010). Where does amantadine bind to the influenza virus M2 proton channel ?. Trends Biochem Sci. 35,471-475.

Lai CL, Gane E, Liaw YF, Hsu CW, Thongsawat S, Wang Y, Chen Y, Heathcote JE, Resenack J, Bzowej N, Naoumov NV, Di Bisceglie AM, Zeuzem S, Moon YM, Goodman Z, Chao G, Constance BF, Brown NA, (2007). Telbivudine versus Lamivudine in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B. New Eng J Med. 357, 2576-2588.

Leung DT, Sacks SL, (2004). Docosanol: a topical anti- viral for herpes labialis. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 5, 2567–2571.

Liang R, Li H, Swanson JM, Voth GA, (2014). Multiscale simulation reveals a multifaceted mechanism of proton per- meation through the influenza A M2 proton channel. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 111, 9396–9401.

Lv Z, Chu Y, Wang Y, (2015). HIV protease inhibitors: a review of molecular selectivity and toxicity. HIV/AIDS (Auckl). 7, 95-104.

Maes R, (2012). Felid Herpesvirus Type 1 Infection in Cats. A Natural Host Model for Alphaherpesvirus Pathogenesis. Int Sch Res Net Vet Sci, 1-14.

Maggs DJ, (2005). Update on Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Feline Herpesvirus Type 1, Clin Tech Small Anim Pract. 20, 94-101. 46. Maggs DJ, Clarke HE, (2004). In vitro efficacy of ganci- clovir, cidofovir, penciclovir, foscarnet, idoxuridine, and acyclovir against feline herpesvirus type-1. Am J Vet Res. 65, 399-403.

Mahmoud S, Hasabelnaby S, Hammad SF, Sakr TM, (2018). Antiviral Nucleoside and Nucleotide Analogs: A Review. J Adv Pharm Res. 2, 73-88.

McKimm-Breschkin JL, (2013). Influenza neuraminidase inhibitors: antiviral action and mechanisms of resistance. İnfluenza Other Respir Virus. 7, 25-36.

Messina JP, Humphreys I, Flaxman A, Brown A, Cooke GS, Pybus OG, Barnes E, (2015). Global distribution and prevalence of hepatitis C virus genotypes. Hepatology. 61, 77–87.

Moscana A, (2005). Neuraminidase Inhibitors for Influenza. New Eng J Med. 353, 1363-1373. 51. Mouscadet JF, Tchertanov L, (2009). Raltegravir: molecu- lar basis of its mechanism of action. Eur J Med Res. 14, 5–16.

Nováková L, Pavlík, J. Chrenková L, Martinec O, Červený L, (2018). Current antiviral drugs and their analysis in biological materials—Part I: Antivirals against respiratory and herpes viruses. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 147, 400–416.

Patel P, Louie S, (2018). Drug Interactions in HIV: Protease and Integrase Inhibitors. Pai M, Kiser J, Gubbins P, Rodvold K eds. Drug Interactions in Infectious Diseases: Antimicrobial Drug Interactions Fourth edition. Humana Press, Cham. p.255-295.

Patel, IH, Zhang X, Nieforth K, Salgo M, Buss N, (2005). Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and drug interac- tion potential of enfuvirtide. Clin Pharmacokinet. 44, 175- 186.

Perry CM, (2010). A Review of its Use in the Management of CCR5-Tropic HIV-1 Infection. Drugs. 70, 1189-1213. 56. Pielak RM, Schnell JR, Chou JJ, (2009). Mechanism of drug inhibition and drug resistance of influenza A M2 chan- nel, Proc Nat Acad Sci. 106, 7379-7384.

. Poole CL, James SH, (2018). Antiviral therapies for her- pesviruses: Current agents and new direction. Clin Thera. 40, 1282-1298. 58. Quashie PK, Sloan RD, Wainberg MA, (2012). Novel thera- peutic strategies targeting HIV integrase. BMC Med. 10, 1-11.

. Rad TM, Saghaie L, Fassihi A, (2019). HIV-1 Entry Inhibitors: A Review of Experimental and Computational Studies. Chem Biodiversty. 15, e1800159.

Razonable RR, (2011). Antiviral Drugs for Viruses Other Than Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Mayo Clin Proc. 86, 1009–1026.

Rokx C, Rijnders BJA, (2015). Evidence gathered from randomized clinical trials and observational studies on the equivalence of emtricitabine and lamivudine. Clin Infect Dis. 60, 1732–1733

Sacks SL, Thisted RA, Jones TM, Barbarash RA, Mikolich DJ, Ruoff GE, Jorizzo JL, Gunnill LB, Katz DH, Khalil MH, Morrow PR, Yakatan GJ, Pope LE, Berg JE, Docosanol 10% Cream Study Group, (2001). Clinical efficacy of topi- cal docosanol 10% cream for herpes simplex labialis: a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Am Acad Dermatol.45, 222-230.

Samson M, Pizzorno A, Abed Y, Boivin G, (2013). Influenza virus resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors. Antiviral Res. 98,174–185.

Sancho-Ruiz A, Sheldon J, Soriano V, (2007). Telbivudine: a new option fort he treatment of chronic hepatitis B. Expert Opin. Biol. Ther. 7, 751-761.

Sandmeyer LS, Keller CB, Bienzle D, (2005). Effects of interferon-α on cytopathic changes and titers for feline her- pesvirus-1 in primary cultures of feline corneal epithelial cells. Am J Vet Res. 66, 210-216.

. Sarrazin C, (2016). The importance of resistance to direct antiviral drugs in HCV infection in clinical practice. J Hepatol. 64, 486–504. 67. Schoggins JW, (2018). Recent advances in antiviral in- terferon-stimulated gene biology. F1000Research. 7: 309. Erişim tarihi: 28.03.2019.

Sebbag L, Thomasy SM, Woodward PA, Heather KK, Maggs DJ, (2016). Pharmacokinetic modeling of penciclo- vir and BRL42359 in the plasma and tears of healthy cats to optimize dosage recommendations for oral administration of famciclovir. Am J Vet Res. 77, 833-845.

Segovia CM, Chacra W, Gordon SC, (2012). Adefovir dipivoxil in chronic hepatitis B: history and current uses. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 13, 245-254.

Seley-Radtke KL, Yates MK, (2018). The evolution of nucleoside analogue antivirals: A review for chemists and non-chemists. Part 1: Early structural modifications to the nucleoside scaffold. Antivir Res. 154, 66–86.

Siebeck N, Hurley JD, Garcia M, Greene CE, Köstlin RG, Moore AP, Dietrich UM, (2006). Effects of human recom- binant alpha-2b interferon and feline recombinant omega interferon on in vitro replication of feline herpesvirus-1. Am J of Vet Res. 8, 1406-1411.

Tan Q, Zhu Y, Li J, Chen Z, Han GW, Kufareva I, Li T, Ma L, Fenalti G, Li J, Zhang W, Xie X, Yang H, Jiang H, Cherezov V, Liu H, Stevens RC, Zhao Q, Wu B, (2013). Structure of the CCR5 Chemokine Receptor–HIV Entry Inhibitor Maraviroc Complex. Sci. 341, 1387-1390.

Thomasy SM, Maggs DJ, (2016). A review of antiviral drugs and other compounds with activity against feline herpesvirus type 1. Vet Ophthalmol. 19, 119-130.

Tözsér J, (2010). Comparative Studies on Retroviral Proteases: Substrate Specificity. Viruses. 2, 147-165.

Wensing AM, Van Maarseveen NM, Nijhuis M, (2010). Fifteen years of HIV protease inhibitors: raising the bar- rier to resistance. Antiviral Res. 85, 59–74.

. Wilhelmus KR, (2015). Antiviral treatment and other thera- peutic interventions for herpes simplex virus epithelial ker- atitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 8, CD002898.

Yamada H, İkushima İ, Nemato T, İshikawa T, Ninomiya N, İrie S, (2017). Effects of a nutritional protein-rich drink on the pharmacokinetics of elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtric- itabine, tenofovir alafenamide, and tenofovir compared with a standard meal in healthy japanese male subjects. Clin Pharma Drug Develop. 7, 132-142.

Kaynak Göster

APA Küçük, A , Yıldırım, Y . (2019). Antiviral İlaçlar . Etlik Veteriner Mikrobiyoloji Dergisi , 30 (1) , 100-108 . DOI: 10.35864/evmd.586573

2341 2904

Sayıdaki Diğer Makaleler

Borrelia burgdorferi ile doğal enfekte köpeklerin nötrofil-lenfosit, monosit-lenfosit ve platelet-lenfosit oranlarının belirlenmesi


Kistik Ekinokokkozisli Sığır Akciğerlerinde Hücre Adezyon Moleküllerinin Araştırılması


Atık yapan sığırlarda Anti-Neospora caninum antikorlarının yaygınlığının araştırılması


Aydın İlinde Tüketime Sunulan Çöp Şişlerin Mikrobiyolojik Kalitesinin İncelenmesi


Zencefil’in Antibakteriyal Etkisi (Antibacterial effect of Zingiber officinale (Ginger))


Sığır, Koyun ve Keçilerin Bovine Parainfluenza 3 Virus Enfeksiyonuna Duyarlılıklarının Saha Şartlarında Serolojik Olarak Karşılaştırılması

Sibel GÜR

İki Altın Çakal’da (Canis aureus Linnaeus, 1758) Bulunan Helmint Enfeksiyonları ve Zoonotik Önemi


Enfeksiyöz Nekrotik Hepatitis Aşısının Üretiminde Poli (D, L-Laktik-Ko-Glikolik Asit) (PLGA) Biyopolimerinin Adjuvant Etkisinin Araştırılması


Erken Olgunlaşma Dönemindeki Geleneksel Peynir Mikrobiyomunun Metagenomik Analizi


Laboratuvar Hayvanlarında Ötenazi Yöntemleri

Sedat GÖKMEN, Aylin PEHLİVAN, Abdurrahman AKSOY