Cross-Cultural Metric Equivalence of Somatization, Depression, and Anxiety Scales Across Turkish and U.S.A. University Students

Amaç: Bu çalışmanın amacı, somatizasyon, depresyon ve anksiyete arasındaki ilişkinin kültürler arası farklarını incelemektir. Yöntem: Bu yapıların Türkiye ve Amerika'daki faktör yapısı kıyaslanmış ve ölçülmelerinde kullanılan araçların metrik değişmezliği araştırılmıştır. Analizler için Türkiyeli ve Amerikalı 778 katılımcıdan elde edilen veriler kullanılmıştır.Bulgular: Somatizasyon, depresyon ve anksiyetenin hem Türkiyeli hem de Amerikalı katılımcılar için birbirinden ayrı ancak birbiri ile ilgili üç yapı olduğu anlaşılmıştır. Ayrıca kullanılan araçlar olan Beck Depresyon Envanteri-II), Durumluk-Sürekli Kaygı Envanteri Sürekli Kaygı alt testi ve Ruhsal Belirti Tarama Listesi 90-R Somatizasyon alttesti araçlarının bu iki kültür arasında metrik değişmezliğe sahip olmadığı tespit edilmiştir. Bu araçlar, Türkiye ve Amerika genelinde aynı yapıyı ölçümlememektedirler. Sonuç: Sonuçlar, depresyon, anksiyete ve somatizasyonun DSM-IV'de ayrı yapılar olarak kavramlaştırılmış olması ile tutarlı, Krueger ve arkadaşlarının bulgularına aykırı bulunmuştur.

Somatizasyon, depresyon ve kaygı ölçeklerinin kültürler arası metrik eşitliğinin Türkiye ve Amerika'daki üniversite öğrencilerinde incelenmesi

Objective: The purpose of the present study was to gain a better understanding of cross-cultural differences in somatization, depression, and anxiety. Method: The author compared the factor structure of depression, anxiety, and somatization across Turkey and the U.S.A., and investigated the metric invariance of the instruments used to measure these constructs. Data from 778 Turkish and U.S.A. participants were used for the analyses. Results: It was found that depression, somatization, and anxiety are three distinct but related constructs for both Turkish and U.S.A. participants. It was also found that the instruments, namely the Beck Depression Inventory-II, Trait subscale of the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Symptom Check List 90-R Somatization subscale, do not have metric invariance across the two cultures. These instruments do not measure the same construct across Turkey and the U.S.A. Conclusion: The results were consistent with the way depression, anxiety, and somatization are conceptualized in the DSM-IV as separate constructs, but contradicted Krueger et al.'s findings.

Kaynakça

Tanaka-Matsumi J, Draguns JG. Culture and psychopathology: In Berry J, Segall MH, Kagitcibasi C (editors). Handbook of Cross-Cultural Psychology. Second ed. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1997, 449-491.

Kirmayer LJ. Culture, affect and somatization. Transcult Psychiatry 1984; 21:159-262.

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Fourth ed. rev., Washington: American Psychiatric Association, 1994, 485-511.

Kirmayer LJ, Da THT, Smith A. Somatization and psychologization: understanding cultural idioms of distress: In Okpaku SO (editor). Clinical Methods in Transcultural Psychiatry. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Press, 1998, 233-265.

Gureje O, Simon GE, Ustun TB, Goldberg DP. Somatization in cross cultural perspective: a World Health Organization study in primary care. Am J Psychiatry 1997; 154:989-995.

World Health Organization. International Classification of Diseases. Tenth rev., Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 1992.

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders. Third ed. rev. Washington: American Psychiatric Association, 1987, 1-608.

Escobar JI, Rubio-Stipec M, Canino G, Karno M. Somatic Symptom Index (SSI): a new abridged somatization construct. J Nerv Ment Dis 1989; 177:140-146.

Ozkan M, Sir A, Ozcetin A, Ataoglu A. Generalized anxiety disorder, depression and anxious depression in somatizing patients. Turk Psikiyatri Derg 1998; 9:107-113. (Turkish)

Kaygisiz A, Alkin T. Comorbidity of axis-I and axis-II mental disorders in conversion disorder. Turk Psikiyatri Derg 1999; 10:33-39. (Turkish)

Ulusahin A, Basoglu M, Paykel ES. A cross-cultural comparative study of depressive symptoms in British and Turkish clinical samples. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 1994; 29:31-39.

Baarnhielm S. Clinical encounters with different illness realities: qualitative studies of illness meaning and restructuring of illness meaning among two cultural groups of female patients in a multicultural area of Stockholm. http://diss.kib.ki.se/2003/91- 7349-641-3. Accessed July 8, 2013.

Krueger RF, Chentsova-Dutton YE, Markon KE, Goldberg D, Ormel J. A cross-cultural study of the structure of comorbidity among common psychopathological syndromes in the general health care setting. J Abnorm Psychol 2003; 112:437-448.

Ustun TB, Sartorius N. Mental Illness in General Health Care: An International Study. New York: Wiley, 1995, 1-385.

World Health Organization. Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, Division of Mental Health, 1989.

Van Ommeren M, Sharma B, Makaju R, Thap S, De Jong J. Limited cultural validity of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview's Probe Flow Chart. Transcult Psychiatry 2000; 37:119-130.

Beck AT, Steer RA, Brown GK. Beck Depression Inventory II manual. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation, 1996.

Spielberger CD, Gorsuch RL, Lushene RE. Manual for the State- Trait Anxiety Inventory. California: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1970.

Spielberger CD, Gorsuch RL, Lushene RE, Vagg PR, Jacobs GA. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adults: Sampler Set, Manual, Test, Scoring Key. CA: Mind Garden, 1983.

Derogatis LR. SCL-90-R: Administration, Scoring, and Procedures Manual. Third ed. MN: National Computer Systems, 1994.

Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS. Using Multivariate Statistics. MA: Allyn Bacon, 2001.

Carkoglu A, Toprak B. Religion, Society and Politics in Turkey. Istanbul: TESEV Yayinlari, 2000. (Turkish)

Beck AT, Ward CH, Mendelson M, Mock J, Erbaugh J. An inventory for measuring depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1961; 4:561-571.

Beck AT, Steer RA. Manual for the Beck Hopelessness Scale. San Antonia, TX: The Psychological Corporation, 1988.

Beck AT, Kovacs M, Weissman A. Assessment of suicidal intention: the scale for suicide ideation. J Consult Clin Psychol 1979; 47:343-352.

Hamilton M. A rating scale for depression. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1960; 23:56-62.

Hamilton M. The assessment of anxiety states by rating. Br J Med Psychol 1959; 32:50-55.

Beck AT, Rush AJ, Shaw BF, Emery G. Cognitive Therapy of Depression. New York: Guilford Press, 1979.

Hisli N. A study on the validity of Beck Depression Inventory. J Psychol 1988; 6:118-122. (Turkish)

Tegin B. Cognitive processes in depression: an investigation according to Beck's model. J Psychol 1987; 6:116-123. (Turkish)

Aydin G, Demir A. Validity and reliability of Multidimensional Depression Inventory. J Psychol 1988; 6:1-6. (Turkish)

Brislin RW. The wording and translation of research instruments: In Lonner WJ, Berry JW (editors). Field Methods in Cross- Cultural Research. Volume 8. CA: Sage, 1986, 47-83.

Ægisd?ttir S, Gerstein L, Canel-Çınarbaş D. Methodological issues in cross-cultural counseling research: equivalence, bias and translations. Couns Psychol 2008; 36:188-219.

Canel-Cinarbas D, Cui Y, Lauridsen E. Cross-Cultural Validation of Beck Depression Inventory-II across U.S.A. and Turkish samples. Meas Eval Couns Dev 2011; 44:77-91.

Oner N. Validity of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory in Turkish society. Gradute Thesis, Hacettepe University, Ankara, 1977. (Turkish)

Aydin S. Trait anxiety levels and psychological problems among patients with psychological and physiological headaches who present to Ankara Hospital Neurology Clinic. Master Thesis, Hacettepe University, Ankara, 1987. (Turkish)

Kilic M. Students with and without various psychological problems and their issues. Graduate Thesis, Hacettepe University, Ankara, 1987. (Turkish)

Kellner R, Hernandez J, Pathak D. Hypochondriacal fears and beliefs, anxiety, and somatisation. Br J Psychiatry 1992; 160:525- 532.

Dickson LR, Hays LR, Kaplan C, Scherl E, Abbott S, Schmitt F. Psychological profile of somatizing patients attending the Integrative Clinic. Int J Clin Med 1992; 22:141-153.

Dimitrov DM. Testing for factorial invariance in the context of construct validation. Meas Eval Couns Dev 2010; 43:121-149.

Dozois DJA, Dobson KS, Ahnberg JL, Rosenbaum P. Item bundles. Psychometrika 1988; 53:349-359.

Thompson B. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, 2004.

Joreskog KG. Simultaneous factor analysis in several populations. Psychometrika 1971; 36:409-426.

Hu L, Bentler PM. Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Struct Equ Modeling 1999; 6:1-55.

Marsh HW, Hau K-T, Wen Z. In search of golden rules: comment on hypothesis-testing approaches to setting cutoff values for fit indexes and dangers in overgeneralizing Hu and Bentler's (1999) findings. Struct Equ Modeling 2004; 11:320-341.

Byrne BM. Structural Equation Modeling with AMOS: Basic Concepts, Applications, and Programming. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2001.

Fahrenberg J. Somatic complaints in the German population. J Psychosom Res 1995; 39:809-817.

Kaynak Göster

1068 318

Arşiv
Sayıdaki Diğer Makaleler

Cross-Cultural Metric Equivalence of Somatization, Depression, and Anxiety Scales Across Turkish and U.S.A. University Students

Deniz Canel ÇINARBAŞ

Evaluation of Assaults on Doctors in Canakkale within the Last Year

Elif KARAAHMET, Bahadır BAKIM, Kürşat ALTINBAŞ, Emel PEKER

A Case of AripiprazoleRelated Acute Dystonia in an Adolescent Patient

Cem GÖKÇEN, ALİ KARAYAĞMURLU, Gökay ALPAK

Evaluation of cognitive functions in Parkinson's patients without dementia with auditory event related potential (P300)

Suna SARIKAYA, Tahir Kurtuluş YOLDAŞ, Neşe Güngör YAVAŞOĞLU

The Relationship of Self-Esteem, Impulsivity and Temperament in Bipolar Patients: Is it Differentially Related to Gender?

Sermin KESEBİR, Özlem GÜNGÖRDÜ, Mecit ÇALIŞKAN

Area of Specialty Preferences of Forensic Authorities in Forensic Psychiatric Evaluation Requests: A University Hospital Experience

Mustafa Talip ŞENER, ONUR BURAK DURSUN, ESAT FAHRİ AYDIN, Semiha ARSLAN, Mustafa GÜLEÇ

Treatment of Flight Phobia (Aviophobia) Through The Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Method: A Case Report

Nergis LAPSEKİLİ, Zekeriya YELBOĞA

First Manic Episode After A Single Dose of 30 mg

Filiz İZCİ, Selma ZİNCİR BOZKURT, Güler ACAR, Ferzan ERGUN, Ümit Başar SEMİZ

Acute Dystonic Reaction Associated with Increase in Trazodone Dose: A Case Report

HATİCE HARMANCI, Serap TAYCAN ERDOĞAN, Feryal ÇELİKEL ÇAM

Repetetively Cutting Own Oral Mucosa as a Self-Harming Behavior: A Case Report

Esra ALATAŞ, Süheyla BULUT DOĞAN, Tonguç Demir BERKOL, Gazi ALATAŞ