Bu çalışmanın amacı Çocuklar İçin Öz-yeterlik Ölçeği’nin uyarlama, geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışmasını yapmaktır. Araştırmanın katılımcılarını 461 ilköğretim ve 472 lise öğrencisi olmak üzere 933 ergen oluşturmaktadır. Ergenlerin %54,8’i (n= 511) kız, %45,2’si (n= 422) erkektir. Ölçeğin yapı geçerliğini belirlemek için açımlayıcı ve doğrulayıcı faktör analizi yapılmıştır. Açımlayıcı faktör analizi sonunda ölçeğin özgün formunda olduğu gibi üç faktörden oluştuğu saptanmıştır. Doğrulayıcı faktör analizi sonucu üç faktörlü modelin iyi düzeyde uyum gösterdiği görülmüştür. İç tutarlık, test-tekrar test, madde analizi ve ölçüt bağıntılı geçerlik yöntemleri ölçeğin geçerli ve güvenilir olduğunu göstermektedir. Araştırma sonuçları ölçeğin ergenlerin akademik, sosyal ve duygusal öz-yeterliklerini ölçmede kullanılabileceğini göstermiştir.
The purpose of this study is to adapt the Self-efficacy Scale for Children and to carry out the validity and reliability studies. The participants of the study consist of 461 primary school and 472 high school students which make up totally 933 adolescents. 54.8 % of the adolescents are females whereas 45.2 % of them are males. In order to determine the construct validity of The Self-Efficacy Scale for Children, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was conducted. The exploratory factor analysis showed that the scale included 3 factors as it was in the original form. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the three-factor model fitted the research data. Internal reliability, test-retest reliability, item analysis, criterion-related validity analysis has demonstrated its reliability and validity. The results of the study showed that the scale can be used to measure the academic, social and emotional self-efficacy of adolescents.
Bandura, A., Adams N. E. & Beyer, J. (1977). Cognitive Processes Mediating Behavioral Change. Journal of Personality and Psycholog, 35, 125–139.
Bandura, A. (1982). Self-Efficacy Mechanism in Human Agency. American Psychologist, 37, 122–147.
Bandura, A. (1988). Organizational Applications of Social Cognitive Theory. Australian Journal of Management, 13, 275–302.
Bandura, A. (1989). Social Cognitive Theory. In E. Barnouw (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Communications (pp. 92–96). New York: Oxford University Press.
Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived Self-Efficacy in Cognitive Development and Functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28, 117–148.
Bandura, A. (1994). Self-Efficacy. In V. S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 71–81). New York: Academic Press.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. New York: Freeman.
Bandura, A. (1998). Personal and Collective Efficacy in Human Adaptation and Change. In J. G. Adair, D. Belanger, & K. L. Dion (Eds.), Advances in psychological science: Vol. 1. Personal, Social and Cultural Aspects (pp. 51–71). Hove, UK: Psychology Press.
Bandura, A., Pastorelli, C., Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, G. V. (1999). Self-Efficacy Pathways to Childhood Depression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 258–269.
Bandura, A. (1999). Social Cognitive Theory: An Agentic Perspective. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 2, 21–41.
Bandura, A., Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Pastorelli, C. & Regalia, C. (2001). Sociocognitive Self-Regulatory Mechanisms Governing Transgressive Behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 125–135.
Bandura, A. (2006). Guide for Constructing Self-Efficacy Scales. In F. Pajares ve T. Urdan (Eds.), Self-efficacy Beliefs of Adolescents (pp.1–43). Greenwich, CT: Information Age.
Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2005). Sosyal Bilimler İçin Veri Analizi El Kitabı (İstatistik, Araştırma Deseni, SPSS Uygulamaları ve Yorum). Ankara: Pegem Yayıncılık.
Coakes, S. J. (2005). SPSS: Analysis without Anguish: Version 12.0 for Windows. Melbourne: John Wiley and Sons.
Greve, W., Anderson, A. & Krampen, G. (2001). Self-Efficacy and Externality in Adolescence: Theoretical Conceptions and Measurement in New Zealand and German Secondary School Students. An International Journal of Theory and Research, 1(4), 321–344.
Hair, J. F., Black, B., Babin, B., Anderson, R. E. & Tatham, R. L. (2006) Multivariate Data Analysis. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.
Hamptona, N. Z. & Mason, E. (2003). Learning Disabilities, Gender, Sources of Efficacy, Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Academic Achievement in High School Students. Journal of School Psychology, 41, 101–112.
Heslin, P. A. (1999). Boosting Empowerment by Developing Self-Efficacy. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 37, 52–64.
Hodges, C. B. (2005). Self-Efficacy, Motivational Email, and Achievement in an Asynchronous Mathematics Course. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. Virginia State University.
Hofstetter, C, R., Zuniga, S. & Dozier, D. M. (2001). Media Self-Efficacy: Validation of a New Concept. Mass Communication & Society, 4(1), 61–76.
Kiser, M. D. (2008). Developmental Students Sources of Self-Efficacy and the University Academic Support Program Impact. Unpublish Dissertation. Texas Tech University. Texas.
Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and Practice of Structural Equations Modeling. New York: Guilford.
Leech, N. L., Barrett, K. C. & Morgan, G. A. (2005). SPSS for Intermediate Statistics: Use and Interpretation (2. Baskı). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Ass.
Luszczynska, A., Gutierrez-Dona, B. & Schwarzer, R. (2005). General Self-Efficacy in Various Domains of Human Functioning: Evidence from Five Countries. International Journal of Psychology, 40 (2), 80–89.
Marat, D. (2003). Assessing Self-Efficacy and Agency of Secondary School Students in a Multi-cultural Context: Implications for Academic Achievement. Proceedings of the New Zealand and Australian Association for Research in Education Conference, Auckland. 18.09.2008 tarihinde http://www.aare.edu.au/03pap/mar03057.pdf adresinden alınmıştır.
Muretta, R. J. (2004). Exploring the Four Sources of Self-Efficacy. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. Tore University International. California.
Muris, P. (2001). A Brief Questionnaire for Measuring Self-Efficacy in Youths. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 23, 145–149.
Muris, P. (2002). Relationships between Self-Efficacy and Symptoms of Anxiety Disorders and Depression in a Normal Adolescent Sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 337–348.
Nasta, K. A. (2007). Influence of Career Self-Efficacy Beliefs on Career Exploration Behaviors. Unpublished Master's Thesis. The State University of New York at New Paltz.
Pajares, F. (1996). Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Academic Settings. Review of Educational Research, 66 (4), 543–578.
Pajares, F. (2002). Overview of Social Cognitive Theory and Self-efficacy. http://www.emory.edu/educatıon/mfp/eff.html.
Piko, B. F., Gibson, F. X., Luszcynska, A. & Teközel, M. (2002). Does Culture Matter? Cross-Cultural Comparison of smoking Patterns among Adolescents. The 16th Conference of the European Health Psychology Society-Proceeding.
Scholz, U., Gutierrez-Dona, B., Sud, S. & Schwarzer, R. (2002). Is General Self-Efficacy a Universal Construct? Psychometric Findings From 25 Countries. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 18, 242–251.
Schumacker, R. E. & Lomax, R. G. (2004). A Beginner's Guide to Structural Equation Modeling. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Ass.
Schunk, D. H. & Ertmer, P. A. (2000). Self-regulation and Academic Learning: Self-Efficacy Enhancing İnterventions. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of Self-Regulation (pp. 631–649). San Diego: Academic Press.
Schunk, D. & Meece, J. (2005). Self-Effıcacy Development in Adolescences. Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Adolescents (pp.71–96). Information Age Publishing.
Schwarzer, R. & Jerusalem, M. (1979). General Self-Efficacy Scale. In R. Schwarzer (Ed.), Selfefficacy: Thought control of action (pp. 195-213).
Smith, M. S. (2002). Using the Social Cognitive Model to Explain Vocational Interest in Information Technology. Information Technology, Learning, and Performance Journal, 20, 1–9.
Stajkovic, A. D. & Luthans, F. (1998). Social Cognitive Theory and Self-Efficacy: Going Beyond Traditional Motivational and Behavioral Approaches. Field Report, 62–74.
Tabachnick, B. G., Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using Multivariate Statistics. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Vardarlı, G. (2005). İlköğretim İkinci Kademe Öğrencilerinin Öz-Yeterlik Düzeylerinin Yordanması. Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Ege Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.
Wood, R. & Bandura, A. (1989). Social Cognitive Theory of Organizational Management. Academy of Management Review, 14, 361–384.
Zimmerman, B. J. & Cleary, T. J. (2006). Adolescents’ Development of Personal Agency. The Role of Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Self-Regulatory Skill. In F. Pajares & T. Urdan (Eds.). Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Adolescents (pp.45–69). Information Age Publishing.