Öz This study determined the DPPH free-radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI), DNA-protective activity, antiproliferative activity, antimicrobial activity and phenolic contents of methanol (MeOH) and dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of A. capillus-veneris leaves collected from the province of Duhok (Iraq). As a result of the studies, it was determined that the MeOH extract of A. calocephalum had a 49.74% free-radical scavenging activity at 2 mg/mL concentration. It was found that the extracts were effective against the test microorganisms at a concentration level of 200-400 µg/mL. TAS, TOS and OSI values were 3.086±0.066, 21.532±0.525 and 0.698±0.002, respectively. The DNA-protective activity of the extracts was found to be weak compared to the positive control. It was found that, depending on the increase in concentration, the extracts showed antiproliferative activity on A549 cells. Furthermore, the HPLC analyses found Catechin, Cinnamic acid, Chlorogenic acid, Caffeic acid, p-Coumaric acid, Rosmarinic acid and 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid with various ppm values. Consequently, it was determined that A. capillus-veneris could be a potential natural source pharmacologically.
A. Rebaya, S.I. Belghith, B. Baghdikian, V.M. Leddet, F. Mabrouki, E. Olivier, J.K. Cherif and M.T. Ayadi, Total phenolic, total flavonoid, tannin content, and antioxidant capacity of Halimium halimifolium (Cistaceae), Journal of applied pharmaceutical science, 5/1 (2014) 52-57.
T.P.A. Devasagayam, J.C. Tilak, K.K. Boloor, K.S. Sane, S.S. Ghaskadbi and R.D. Lele, Review: Free radicals and antioxidants in human health, Journal of The Association of Physicians of India, 52 (2004) 794-804.
K.A. Hammer, C.F. Carson and T.V Riley, Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and other plant extracts, Journal of applied microbiology, 86/6 (1999) 985-990.
W. Talib and A. Mahasneh, Antiproliferative activity of plant extracts used against cancer in traditional medicine, Scientia pharmaceutica, 78/1 (2010) 33-46.
A.A. Mostafa, A.A. Al-Askar, K.S. Almaary, T.M. Dawoud, E.N. Sholkamy and M.M. Bakri, Antimicrobial activity of some plant extracts against bacterial strains causing food poisoning diseases, Saudi journal of biological sciences, 25/2 (2018) 361-366.
Y. Tian, A. Puganen, H.L. Alakomi, A. Uusitupa, M. Saarela and B. Yang, Antioxidative and antibacterial activities of aqueous ethanol extracts of berries, leaves, and branches of berry plants, Food research international, 106 (2018) 291-303.
M.S.D. Oliveira, S.M. Gontijo, M.S. Teixeira, K.I.R. Teixeira, J.A. Takahashi, R.D.S. Millan and M.E.C. Segura, (2018). Chemical composition and antifungal and anticancer activities of extracts and essential oils of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi fruit, Revista Fitos. Rio de Janeiro, 12/2 (2018) 135-146
K. Kiran, F. Saleem, S. Awan, S. Ahmad, S. Ahmad, A. Malik, B. Akhtar, M. Raza, S. Peerzada and A. Sharif, Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Activity of Pteris cretica Whole Plant Extracts, Pakistan Veterinary Journal, 38/3 (2018) 225-230.
S. Dehdari and H. Hajimehdipoor, Medicinal Properties of Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. in Traditional Medicine and Modern Phytotherapy: A Review Article, Iranian journal of public health, 47/2 (2018) 188.
K. Shimada, K. Fujikawa, K. Yahara and T. Nakamura, Antioxidative properties of xanthan on the autoxidation of soybean oil in cyclodextrin emulsion, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 40 (1992) 945-948.
O. Erel, A novel automated direct measurement method for total antioxidant capwacity using a new generation, more stable ABTS radical cation, Clinical Biochemistry, 37 (2004) 277-285.
O. Erel, A new automated colorimetric method for measuring total oxidant status, Clinical Biochemistry, 38 (2005) 1103-1111.
F. Caponio, V. Alloggio and T. Gomes, Phenolic compounds of virgin olive oil: influence of paste preparation techniques, Food Chemistry, 64 (1999) 203-209.
A.W. Bauer, W.M.M. Kirby, J.C. Sherris and M. Turck, Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method, American journal of clinical pathology, 45 (1966) 493-496.
EUCAST. (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing), Breakpoint Tables Fungal Isolate for Interpretation of MICs, EUCAST, Basel, Switzerland (2014).
EUCAST. (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing), Breakpoint Tables for Bacteria Interpretation of MICs and Zone Diameters, EUCAST, Basel, Switzerland (2015).
J. Hindler, L. Hochstein and A. Howell, Preparation of routine media and reagents used in antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Part 1. McFarland standards, in Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, H. D. Isenberg, Ed., American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC, USA (1992).
E. Matuschek, D.F. Brown and G. Kahlmeter, Development of the EUCAST disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing method and its implementation in routine microbiology laboratories, Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 20 (2014) 255–266.
J.C. Lee, H.R. Kim, J. Kim and Y.S. Jang, Antioxidant property of an ethanol extract of the stem of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50 (2002) 6490-6496.
C. Bal, H. Akgul, M. Sevindik, I. Akata and O. Yumrutas, Determination of the anti-oxidative activities of six mushrooms, Fresenius Envir Bull, 26/10 (2017) 6246-6252.
M. Sulaiman, H.I. Tijani, B.M. Abubakar, S. Haruna, Y. Hindatu, J.N. Mohammed and A. Idris, An overview of natural plant antioxidants: analysis and evaluation, Advances in Biochemistry, 1/4 (2013) 64-72.
Z. Selamoglu, H. Akgul and H. Dogan, Environmental effects on biologic activities of pollen samples obtained from different phytogeographical regions in Turkey, Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 25 (2016) 2484-2489.
F. Pourmorad, S.J. Hosseinimehr and N. Shahabimajd, Antioxidant activity, phenol and flavonoid contents of some selected Iranian medicinal plants, African journal of biotechnology, 5/11 (2006) 1142-1145.
M.Z. Jiang, H. Yan, Y. Wen and X.M. Li, In vitro and in vivo studies of antioxidant activities of flavonoids from Adiantum capillus-veneris L, African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 5 18 (2011) 2079-2085.
Q. Yuan, J. Wang and J. Ruan, Screening for bioactive compounds from Adiantum capillus veneris L, J Chem Soc Pak, 34 (2012) 207-216.
M. Breitenbach and P. Eckl, Introduction to oxidative stress in biomedical and biological research, Biomolecules, 5/2 (2015) 1169-1177.
M. Sevindik, H. Akgul, M. Pehlivan and Z. Selamoglu, Determination of Therapeutic Potential of Mentha longifolia ssp. longifolia, Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 26/7 (2017) 4757-4763.
F.S. Mohammed, H. Akgul, M. Sevindik and B.M.T. Khaled, Phenolic content and biological activities of Rhus coriaria var. zebaria, Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 27/8 (2018) 5694-5702.
P.K. Verma, R. Raina, M. Sultana, M. Singh and P. Kumar, P. Total antioxidant and oxidant status of plasma and renal tissue of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic rats: protection by floral extracts of Calendula officinalis Linn, Renal failure, 38/1 (2016) 142-150.
P. Ohri and S.K. Pannu, Effect of phenolic compounds on nematodes-A review, Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 2/2 (2010) 344-350.
T. Geetha, A. Garg, K. Chopra and I.P. Kaur, Delineation of antimutagenic activity of catechin, epicatechin and green tea extract, Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, 556/1 (2004) 65-74.
P.W. Taylor, J.M. Hamilton-Miller and P.D. Stapleton, Antimicrobial properties of green tea catechins, Food science and technology bulletin, 2 (2005) 71.
G.J. Du, Z. Zhang, X.D. Wen, C. Yu, T. Calway, C.S. Yuan and C.Z. Wang, Epigallocat-echin Gallate (EGCG) is the most effective can-cer chemopreventive polyphenol in green tea, Nutrients, 4/11 (2012) 1679-1691.
F. Iñiguez-Franco, H. Soto-Valdez, E. Peralta, J.E. Ayala-Zavala, R. Auras and N. Gámez-Meza, Antioxidant activity and diffusion of cat-echin and epicatechin from antioxidant active films made of poly (L-lactic acid), Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 60/26 (2012) 6515-6523.
Y. Sato, S. Itagaki, T. Kurokawa, J. Ogura, M. Kobayashi, T. Hirano, M. Sugawara and K. Iseki, In vitro and in vivo antioxidant prop-erties of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid, Inter-national journal of pharmaceutics, 403/1-2 (2011) 136-138.
Z. Lou, H. Wang, S. Zhu, C. Ma and Z. Wang, Antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of chlorogenic acid, Journal of food science, 76/6 (2011) 398-403.
J.G. Xu, Q.P. Hu and Y. Liu, Antioxidant and DNA-protective activities of chlorogenic acid isomers. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 60(46), 11625-11630.
S.J. Hwang, Y.W. Kim, Y. Park, H.J. Lee and K.W. Kim, Anti-inflammatory effects of chlorogenic acid in lipopolysaccharide-stimu-lated RAW 264.7 cells, Inflammation Research, 63/1 (2014) 81-90.
Hou, N., Liu, N., Han, J., Yan, Y., Li, J. (2017) Chlorogenic acid induces reactive oxygen spe-cies generation and inhibits the viability of hu-man colon cancer cells. Anti-cancer drugs. 28/1 (2017) 59-65.
A.H. Gilani, K.H. Janbaz and S.A. Saeed, Anti-hepatotoxic activity of caffeic acid: a phenolic compound from Artemisia scoparia. Bio-chemical Society Transactions, 27/5 (1999) 145.
V. PérezAlvarez, R.A. Bobadilla and P. Muriel, Structure–hepatoprotective activity rela-tionship of 3, 4dihydroxycinnamic acid (caffeic acid) derivatives, Journal of applied toxicology, 21/6 (2001) 527-531.
F.M. Da Cunha, D. Duma, J. Assreuy, F.C. Buzzi, R. Niero, M.M. Campos and J.M. Calixto, Caffeic acid derivatives: in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory properties, Free radical research, 38/11 (2004) 1241-1253.
I. Gulcin, Antioxidant activity of caffeic acid (3, 4-dihydroxycinnamic acid), Toxicology, 217/2-3 (2006) 213-220
T. Arasoglu, S. Derman and B. Mansuroglu, Comparative evaluation of antibacterial activity of caffeic acid phenethyl ester and PLGA nanoparticle formulation by different methods, Nanotechnology, 27/2 (2015) 025103.
Hossan, M.S., Rahman, S., Bashar, A.B.M.A., Jahan, R., Al-Nahain, A., Rahmatullah, M. (2014). Rosmarinic acid: A review of its anticancer action, World J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci, 3/9 (2014) 57-70.
M. Sova, Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of cinnamic acid derivatives, Mini Rev Med Chem, 12/8 (2012) 749-67.
K. Pei, J. Ou, J. Huang and S. Ou, p‐Coumaric acid and its conjugates: dietary sources, pharmacokinetic properties and biological activities, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 96/9 (2016) 2952-2962.
B. Hubkova, B. Velika, A. Birkova, J. Guzy and M. Marekova, P38 Hydroxybenzoic acids and their derivatives as peroxynitrite scavengers, Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 75 (2014) 33-34.
K.R. Rekha, G.P. Selvakumarb and R.I. Sivakamasundaria, Effects of syringic acid on chronic MPTP/probenecid induced motor dysfunction, dopaminergic markers expression and neuroinflammation in C57BL/6 mice, Biomed. Aging Pathol, 4(2014) 95–104.
S. Alinezhad, A. Kamalzadeh, M. Shams-ghahfarokhi, M.B. Rezaee, K. Jaimand, M. Kawachi, Z. Zamani, R. Tolouei and M. Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Search for novel antifungals from 49 indigenous medicinal plant: Foeniculum vulgare and Platycladus orientalis as strong inhibitors of aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus, Ann Microbiol, 61(2011) 673-681.
M.J. Mahmoud, A.L.M. Jawad, A.M. Hussain, M. Al-Omari and A. Al-Naib, In vitro antimicrobial activity of Salsola rosmarinus and Adiantum capillus-veneris, International Journal of Crude Drug Research, 27/1 (1989) 14-16.
M. Singh, N. Singh, P.B. Khare and A.K.S. Rawat, Antimicrobial activity of some important Adiantum species used traditionally in indigenous systems of medicine, Journal of ethnopharmacology, 115/2 (2008) 327-329.
P.V.R. Berselli, S. Zava, G. Montorfano, P.A. Corsetto, J. Krzyzanowska, W. Oleszek and A.M. Rizzo, A mint purified extract protects human keratinocytes from short-term, chemically induced oxidative stress, Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 58/21 (2010) 11428-11434.
L. Cornaghi, F. Arnaboldi, R. Calò, F. Landoni, W.F.B. Preis, L. Marabini and E. Donetti, Effects of uv rays and thymol/thymus vulgaris l. Extract in an ex vivo human skin model: Morphological and genotoxicological assessment. Cells Tissues Organs, 201/3 (2016) 180-192.
D. Newman and G. Cragg, Natural products as sources of new drugs over the 30 years from 1981 to 2010, J. Nat. Prod, 75/3 (2012) 311–335.
M. Carlsen, B. Halvorsen, K. Holte, S. Bøhn, S. Dragland, L. Sampson, C. Willey, H. Senoo, Y. Umezono, C. Sanada, I. Barikmo, N. Berhe, W. Willett, K. Phillips, D. Jacobs and R. Blomhoff, The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide, Nutr. J, 9/3 (2010): 2-11.