Karstik Kapalı Depresyonların (Dolinlerin) Morfometrik Analizleri

Dolinler (karstik kapalı depresyonlar) karstik alanların karakteristik yüzey şekillerindendir. Dolinlerin gelişimi, morfolojisi ve dağılışı üzerinde tektonik, morfolojik ve iklimsel özelliklerin büyük etkisi vardır ve bu etkenlerden dolayı dolinler karstik alanlarının morfo-tektonik gelişimi hakkında önemli ipuçları sağlar. Dolin morfometrisi ile ilgili çok fazla sayıda hesaplama olmakla birlikte bunların çok azı yaygın bir şekilde kullanılmaktadır. Bu çalışmada dolin morfometrisinde yaygın kullanılan parametreler, Dünya’dan ve Toroslar’dan örnekleri ile birlikte, açıklanmıştır.

Morphometric Analyses of Karstic Depressions (Dolines)

Dolines (karstic closed depressions) are surface landforms that are characteristic of karstic areas. Since tectonic, morphologic, and climatic features greatly affect doline development, morphology, and distribution, dolines can provide important information about the morpho-tectonic evolution of karstic areas. Although there are many calculations used in determining doline morphometry, but only a few are common. In this study, we review the parameters commonly used in determining doline morphometry and offer examples from around the world, specifically the Taurus Mountains.

Kaynakça

Aguilar, Y., Bautista, F., Mendoza, M. E., Frausto, O., & Ihl, T. (2016). Density of karst depressions in Yucatán state, Mexico. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 78(2), 51-60. doi: 10.4311/2015ES01.24

Basso, A., Bruno, E., Parise, M., & Pepe, M. (2013). Morphometric analysis of sinkholes in a karst coastal area of southern Apulia (Italy). Environmental Earth Science, 70, 2545–2559. doi:10.1007/ s12665-013-2297-z

Bauer, C. (2015). Analysis of dolines using multiple methods applied to airborne laser scanning data. Geomorphology, 250, 78–88. doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2015.08.015

Bočić, N., Pahernik, M., & Mihevc, A. (2015). Geomorphological significance of the palaeodrainage network on a karst plateau: The Una–Korana plateau, Dinaric karst, Croatia. Geomorphology, 247, 55–65. doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2015.01.028

Bondesan, A., Meneghel, M., & Sauro, U. (1992). Morphometric analysis of dolines. International Journal of Speleology, 21(1), 1–55. doi: 10.5038/1827-806X.21.1.1

Brinkmann, R., Parise, M., & Dye, D. (2008). Sinkhole distribution in a rapidly developing urban environment: Hillsborough County, Tampa Bay area, Florida. Engineering Geology, 99, 169–184. doi: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2007.11.020

Car, J. (2001). Structural bases for shaping of dolines. Acta Carsologica, 30(2), 239–256.

Chenoweth, M. S. (1997). The spatial distribution and morphometeric analysis of dolines Buffalo National River, Newton County Arkansas (Unpublished master’s thesis). University of Miami, FL, USA.

Coleman, A. M., & Balchin, W. G. V. (1959). The origin and development of surface depressions in the Mendip Hills. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 70(4), 291–309. doi: 10.1016/S0016- 7878(59)80011-0

Cramer, H. (1941). Die systematik der karst dolinen. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie und Paleontologie, 85, 293–382.

Day, M. (1976). The morphology and hydrology of some Jamaican karst depressions. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 1(2), 111–129. doi: 10.1002/esp.3290010203

Day, M. (1983). Doline morphology and development in Barbados. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 73(2), 206-219. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8306.1983.tb01408.x

Denizman, C. (2003). Morphometric and spatial distribution parameters of karstic depressions, Lower Suwannee River Basin, Florida. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 65(1), 29–35.

Doğan, U. (2004). Dolin sınıflamasında yeni yaklaşımlar. Gazi Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi 24(1), 249–269.

Doğan, U., & Özel, S. (2005). Gypsum karst and its evolution east of Hafik (Sivas, Turkey). Geomorphology, 71(3), 373–388. doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2005.04.009

Dóniz-Páez, J. (2015). Volcanic geomorphological classification of the cinder cones of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). Geomorphology, 228, 432–447. doi: 10.1016/j. geomorph.2014.10.004

Erinç, S. (2001). Jeomorfoloji II (3.bs). İstanbul: Der Yayınları.

Faivre, S., & Reiffsteck, P. (1999). Spatial distribution of dolines as an indicator of recent deformations on the Velebit mountain range (Croatia). Géomorphologie: Relief, Processus, Environnement, 2, 129–142.

Faivre, S., & Pahernik, M. (2007). Structural influences on the spatial distribution of dolines, Island of Brač, Croatia. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, 51, 487–503. doi: 10.1127/0372-8854/2007/0051- 0487

Ferrarese, F., Sauro, U., & Tonello, C. (1998). The Montello Plateau. Karst evolution of an alpine neotectonic morphostructure. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie Supplement Band 109, 41–62.

Ford, D. C., & Williams, P. W. (2007). Karst geomorphology and hydrology. London, UK: Chapman and Hall.

Gams, I. (2000). Doline morphogenetic processes from global and local viewpoints. Acta Carsologica, 29, 123–138.

Goudie, A. S. (2003). Geomorphological techniques. London, UK: Allen & Unwin.

Jeanpert, J., Genthon, P., Maurizot, P., Folio, J.-L., Vendé-Leclerc, M., Sérino, J., … Iseppi, M. (2016). Morphology and distribution of dolines on ultramafic rocks from airborne LiDAR data: the case of southern Grande Terre in New Caledonia (SW Pacific). Earth Surface, Processes and Landforms 41, 1854–1868. doi: 10.1002/esp.3952

Jennings, J. N. (1975). Doline morphometry as a morphogenetic tool: New Zealand examples. New Zealand Geographer, 31, 6–28. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-7939.1975.tb00793.x

Liang, F., Du, Y., Ge, Y., & Li, C. (2014). A quantitative morphometric comparison of cockpit and doline karst landforms. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 24(6), 1069–1082. doi: 10.1007/s11442- 014-1139-6

Keskin, İ., & Yılmaz, I. (2016). Morphometric and geological features of karstic depressions in gypsum (Sivas, Turkey). Environmental Earth Sciences, 75. doi: 10.1007/s12665-016-5845-5

Kobal, M., Bertoncelj, I., Pirotti, F., Dakskobler, I., & Kutnar, L. (2015). Using lidar data to analyse sinkhole characteristics relevant for understory vegetation under forest cover—Case study of a high karst area in the Dinaric Mountains. PLoS One, 10, e0122070. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0122070

Maclachlan, J. C., & Eyles, C. H. (2013). Quantitative geomorphological analysis of drumlins in the Peterborough drumlin field, Ontario, Canada. Geografiska Annaler: Series A, Physical Geography, 95(2), 125–144. doi: 10.1111/geoa.12005

McCraw, D. J., & Land, L. (2016). Sinkholes: A hidden, real New Mexico geohazard. New Mexico Earth Matter, 16(1), 1–6.

Nazik, L. (1985). Beyşehir Gölü (Konya) yakın güneyi karst jeomorfolojisi (Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi). İstanbul Üniversitesi Deniz Bilimleri ve Coğrafya Enstitüsü, , İstanbul.

Nazik, L. (1986). Beyşehir Gölü yakın güneyi karst jeomorfolojisi ve karstik parametrelerin incelenmesi. Jeomorfoloji Dergisi, 14, 65– 79.

Nazik, L. ve Tuncer, K. (2010). Türkiye karst morfolojisinin bölgesel özellikleri. Türk Speleoloji Dergisi, Karst ve Mağara Araştırmaları, 1, 7–19.

Öztürk, M. Z., Şimşek, M. ve Utlu, M. (2015). Tahtalı Dağları (Orta Toroslar) karst platosu üzerinde dolin ve uvala gelişiminin CBS tabanlı analizi. Türk Coğrafya Dergisi, 65, 59–68. doi: 10.17211/ tcd.22648

Öztürk, M. Z., & Akbaş, A. (2016). Clustering analysis of spatial distribution of karstic depressions on Anamas Mountain (Taurus Mountains, Turkey). Proceedings of the GeoMed2016- IVth Geography Symyposium, 302. Retrieved from https://drive.google. com/file/d/0BwLmYj286TziZ05YclZmZ0QwQ3c/view

Öztürk, M. Z., Şimşek, M., Utlu, M., & Şener, M. F. (2017a). Karstic depressions on Bolkar Mountain plateau, Central Taurus (Turkey): Distribution characteristics and tectonic effect on orientation. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 26, 302–313. doi: 10.3906/yer- 1702-3

Öztürk, M. Z., Şimşek, M., Utlu, M. ve Şener, M. F. (2017b, Ekim). Batı ve Orta Toros Dağları’nda dolin yoğunluğunun alansal dağılış özellikleri. Uluslararası Jeomorfoloji Sempozyumu’nda sunulan bildiri, Elazığ. Erişim adresi: http://ujes.org/konular/

Öztürk, M. Z., Utlu, M., Şener, M. F., & Şimşek, M. (2017). Relationship between relict valley and doline density at the Central Taurus (Turkey). Proceedings of the International Congress on 75th Anniversary of Turkish Geography Society, 644-645.

Pardo-Igúzquiza, E., Valsero, J. J. D., & Dowd, P. A. (2013). Automatic detection and delineation of karst terrain depressions and its application in geomorphological mapping and morphometric analysis. Acta Carsologica, 42(1), 17–24. doi: 10.3986/ac.v42i1.637

Pahernik, M. (2012). Prostorna gustoća ponikava na području Republike Hrvatske (Spatial density of dolines in the Croatian Territory). Hrvatski Geografski Glasnik, 74(2), 5–26. doi: 10.21861/ HGG.2012.74.02.01

Pekcan, N. (1999). Karst jeomorfolojisi. İstanbul: Filiz Kitabevi.

Plan, L., & Decker, K. (2006). Quantitative karst morphology of the Hochschwab plateau, Eastern Alps, Austria. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie Supplument Band, 147, 29–54.

Sauro, U. (2003). Dolines and sinkholes: Aspects of evolution and problems of classification. Acta Carsologica, 32(2), 41–52. doi: 10.3986/ac.v32i2.335

Sauro, U. (2012). Closed depressions in karst areas. In W. B. White & D. C. Culver (Eds.), Enclopedia of caves (pp. 140–155). Amsterdam (The Netherlands): Elsevier.

Şener, M. F., Öztürk, M. Z., Şimşek, M., Utlu, M. ve Şener, M. (2017, Ekim). Dolin dağılışı ve yönelimleri üzerinde yapısal unsurların etkisi: Toroslardan örnekler. Uluslararası Jeomorfoloji Sempozyumu’nda sunulan bildiri, Elazığ. Erişim adresi: http://ujes. org/konular/

Şimşek, M. (2017, Mayıs). Geyik Dağı kütlesindeki (Orta Toroslar) karstik depresyonların dağılış özellikleri. Jeomorfoloji Derneği, Lisansüstü Öğrenci Sempozyumu’nda sunulan bildiri, Balıkesir.

Telbisz, T., Látos, T., Deák, M., Székely, B., Koma, Z., & Standovár, T. (2016). The advantage of lidar digital terrain models in doline morphometry compared to topographic map based datasets – Aggtelek karst (Hungary) as an example. Acta Carsologica, 45, 5–48. doi: 10.3986/ac.v45i1.4138

Waltham, A. C., & Fookes, P. G. (2003). Engineering classification of karst ground conditions. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 36, 101–118. doi: 10.1144/1470-9236/2002-33

Waltham, T., Bell, F. G., & Culshaw, M. G. (2007). Sinkholes and subsidence: karst and cavernous rocks in engineering and construction. Chichester: Springer Science & Business Media.

Williams, P. W. (1966). Morphometric analysis of temperate karst landforms. Irish Speleology, 1, 23–31.

Williams, P. W. (1971). Illustrating morphometric analysis of karst with examples from New Guinea. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, 15, 40–61.

Williams, P. W. (1972). Morphometric analysis of polygonal karst in New Guinea. The Geological Society of America Bulletin, 83(3), 761– 796. doi: 10.1130/0016-7606(1972)83[761:MAOPKI]2.0.CO;2

Xuewen, Z., & Weihai, C. (2006). Tiankengs in the karst of China. Speleogenesis and Evolution of Karst Aquifers, 4(1), 1–18.

Kaynak Göster