KAUNOS DEMETER KUTSAL ALANI: TERAKOTA BULUNTULAR

Kaunos Demeter Kutsal Alanı’nda ele geçen terakota figürinler kadın, erkek ve hayvanlar olmak üzere üç ana gruba ayrılmaktadırlar. Genel buluntu grupları olarak kısmen diğer Demeter Kutsal Alanları’ndaki buluntu konteksleriyle benzerlik gösterirken kısmen farklılaşmaktadır. Özellikle erkeklere ait tiplerin zenginliği ve sayılarının fazlalığı dikkat çekicidir. Buluntular Geç Arkaik Dönem ile Orta Hellenistik Dönem arasına tarihlendirilmekle birlikte buluntuların çok büyük yoğunluğu Hekatomnidler Dönemi’ne aittir. Kadın figürinleri içerisinde hydria taşıyanlar en büyük ağırlığı oluşturmaktadır ve bunlar kutsal alanda törenlere katılan adorantları temsil ediyor olmalıdırlar. Bu tipin dışında domuz taşıyanlar ile çocuk taşıyanlar önemli grupları temsil etmektedirler. Erkek figürinlerinde ağırlık ayakta duran çıplak gençlerdedir. Ayrıca elinde dal, oinochoe ve domuz taşıyan erkek figürinleri de önemli bir sayıya ulaşmaktadır. Tempelboys olarak adlandırılan uzanmış ya da çömelmiş delikanlı figürinlerinin sayısı da yüksektir. Bunların dışında değişik tiplere ait çok sayıda kadın ve erkek başı da mevcuttur. Figürinlerin ortalama boyları 14-16 cm olup genellikle düşük kaliteli bir işçiliğe sahiptirler. Büyük boya ve yüksek kaliteye sahip figürin sayısı çok düşüktür. Devetüyü bir hamura sahip olmaları ortak özellikleridir. Henüz analizleri yapılmayan bu eserlerin Kaunos’da üretilmiş oldukları düşünülmektedir.

KAUNOS DEMETER SANCTUARY: TERRACOTTA FINDINGS

The terracotta figurines unearthed in the Kaunos Demeter Sanctuary are divided into three main groups as women, men and animals. While these find groups are in part similar to the find groups in other Demeter Sacred Areas, are partly different from them. Especially the richness and the number of male species is remarkable. The finds are dated between the Late Archaic Period and the Middle Hellenistic Period, and the great density of this finds belongs to the Hecatomnids Period. The most of the female figurines are the women who bearing hydria, and they must be representing the adorants participating in the ceremonies. Except from this type, bearing pigs and children figures are other important groups. The standing young people in the male figurines are the most numerous. In addition, male figurines bearing branches, oinochoe and pigs also reach an important number. The number of lied down or crouched figurines called Tempelboys is also great. Apart from these, there are also many different types of women and men heads. The average length of the figurines is 14-16 cm and they usually have low quality workmanship. The long lenght and high quality figurines are very few in number. Most of the figures have a light brown clay and this is their common features. These artefacts, which have not been analyzed yet, are thought to have been produced in Kaunos.

Kaynakça

Akurgal 1966 E. Akurgal, Orient und Okzident. Baden 1966.

Alanyalı 2016 F. Alanyalı, “Efes’te Kourotrophos Tanrıçalarının İzinde”. Anadolu Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi AÜSBD (2016) 1-7.

Alpagut 2017 A. Alpagut, “Kaunos Demeter Kutsal Alanı’ndan Ele Geçen Domuz Kemikleri Hakkında İlk Gözlemler”. Eds. M. Doyran, B. Özen-Kleine, U. Çörtük – S. Özen, Uluslararası ‘Anadolu’da Demeter ve Diğer Ana Tanrıça Kültleri Sempozyumu 25-28 Haziran 2014 Kaunos Kazıevi. İzmir (2017) 15-18.

Alroth 1987 B. Alroth, “Visiting Gods –Who and Why?”. Eds. T. Linders – G. Nordquist, Gifts to the Gods, Symposium Uppsala 1985. Uppsala (1987) 9-19.

Ashmole1946 B. Ashmole, “Kalligeneia and Hieros Arotos”. JHS 66 (1946) 8-10.

Baur 1902 P. V. C. Baur, Eileithyia. Columbia 1902.

Beer 1994 C. Beer, Templeboys. A Study of Cypriote Votive Sculpture I (SIMA 113). Jonsered 1994.

Bell 1981 M. Bell, The Terracottas. Morgantina Studies 1. Princeton 1981.

Besques 1986 S. Besques, Musee du Louvre. Catalogue Raisonne des Figurines et Reliefs en tere-cuite Grecs, Etrusques et Romains IV-1. Paris 1986.

Blinckenberg 1931 Ch. Blinkenberg, Lindos. Fouilles de L’Acropole 1902-1914 I - Les Petits Objects. Berlin 1931.

Bookidis – Stroud 1997 N. Bookidis – R. S. Stroud, The Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore: Topography and Architecture. Princeton 1997.

Böhm1990 S. Böhm, Die ‘nackte Göttin’. Mainz 1990.

Bremmer 1996 J. N. Bremmer, Götter, Mythen und Heiligtümer im antiken Griechenland. Darmstadt 1996.

Bruneau 1970 P. Bruneau, Recherches sur les cultes de Délos à l’époque hellénistique à l’époque imperial. Paris 1970.

Bulba 2006-2007 M. Bulba, “Demeterkult in Kaunos”. Anodos 6-7 (2006-2007) 109-114.

Bulba 2010 M. Bulba, “Bothroi in Küçükkale in Kaunos”. Belleten 271 (2010) 649- 667.

Bulba 2011 M. Bulba, “Kaunos Demeter Kayalığı’ndan Ele Geçen Kıbrıs Heykelcikleri”. Adalya 14 (2011) 17-30.

Bulba 2018 M. Bulba, “Kaunos Demeter Kutsal Alanı: Seramik Buluntular”. MJH VIII/2 (2018) 159-179.

Burkert 1987 W. Burkert, Ancient Mystery Cults. Cambridge 1987.

Burkert 2011 W. Burkert, Griechische Religion der Archaischen und Klassischen Epoche. Stuttgart 2011.

Burr-Thompson 1963 D. Burr-Thompson, Troy: The terracotta figurines of the Hellenistic period. Supplementary monograph. Princeton 1963.

Carratelli 1988 G. P. Carratelli, Magna Graecia III. Milano 1988.

Cipriani 1989 M. S. Cipriani, S. Nicola di Albanella: Scavo di un santuario campestre nel territorio di Poseidonia-Paestum. Roma 1989.

Clinton 2005 K. Clinton, “Pigs in Greek Ritual”. Eds. R. Haegg – B. Alroth, Greek Sacrificial Ritual, Olympian and Chthonian. Proceedings of the Sixth International Seminar on Ancient Greek Cult, organized by the Department of Classical Archaeology and Ancient History, Göteborg University, 25-27 April 1997. Stockholm (2005) 167-179.

Cole 2004 S. G. Cole, Landscapes, gender and Ritual Space. Londra 2004.

Collins 2006 B. J. Collins, “Pigs at the Gate: Hittite Pig Sacrifice in its Eastern Mediterranean Context”. JANER 6 (2006) 155-188.

Corbett 1970 P. E. Corbett, “Greek Temples and Greek Worshippers: The Literary and Archaeological Evidence”. BullInstClST 17 (1970) 149-151.

Daumos 1997 M. Daumas, “Des Cabires thébains aux Grands Dieux de Samothrace. Aspects d’une recherche sur un culte à mystères”. RA (1997) 201-209.

Diehl 1964 E. Diehl, Die Hydria: Formgeschichte und Verwendung im Kult des Altertums. Mainz am Rhein 1964.

Dillon 2002 M. Dillon, Girls and Women in Classical Greek Religion. Londra 2002.

Doyran 2008 M. Doyran, “Demeter Cult at Caunos: Kernoi”. Ed. M. Novotná, Cult and Sanctuary through the Ages: From the Bronze Age to the Late Antiquity. Trnava (2008) 149-154.

Doyran 2017 M. Doyran, “Kaunos Demeter Kutsal Alanı’nda Thesmophoria Bayramının İzleri”. Eds. M. Doyran, B. Özen-Kleine, U. Çörtük – S. Özen, Uluslararası ‘Anadolu’da Demeter ve Diğer Ana Tanrıça Kültleri”. Sempozyumu 25-28 Haziran 2014 Kaunos Kazıevi. İzmir (2017) 1-14

Doyran 2017/2 M. Doyran, “Kaunos Kernosları”. Eds. A. Diler, S. Özen – U. Çörtük et al., 50. Yılında Kaunos. İzmir (2016) 59-65.

Dörtlük 1988 K. Dörtlük, Antalya Müzesi. Antalya 1988.

Farnell 1907 L. R. Farnell, Cults of the Greek States vol. III. Oxford 1907.

Farnell 1912 L. R. Farnell, The Higher Aspects of greek Religion. Londra 1912.

Fehrle 1966 E. Fehrle, Die kultische Keuschheit im Altertum. Giessen 1966.

Filges – Matern 1996 A. Filges – P. Matern, “Eine Opfergrube der Demeter in Neandria“. Eds. E. Schwertheim – H. Wiegartz, Neue Forschungen zu Neandria und Alexandria Troas 2 AMS 22. Bonn (1996) 43-86.

Fleischer 1973 R. Fleischer, Artemis von Ephesos und verwandte Kultstatuen aus Anatolien und Syrien. Leiden 1973.

Gasparro 2009 G. S. Gasparro, “Aspects of the Cult of Demeter in Magna Graecia: The ‘Case’ of San Nicola di Albenalla”. Eds. G. Casadio – P. A. Johnston, Mystic Cults in Magna Graecia. Austin (2009) 139-160.

Haas 1982 V. Haas, Hethitische Berggötter und hurritische Steindemonen. Mainz am Rhein 1982.

Haas 1994 V. Haas, Geschichte der hethitischen Religion. Leiden 1994.

Hadzistelou-Price 1969 T. Hadzisteliou-Price, “The Type of the Crouching Child and the ‚Temple Boys”. BSA 64 (1969) 95-111.

Hadzisteliou-Price 1978 T. Hadzisteliou-Price, Kourotrophos. Cults and Represantations of the Greek Nursing Deities. Leiden 1978.

Hamdorf – Leitmeir 2014 F. W. Hamdorf – F. Leitmeir, Die figürlichen Terrakotten der staatlichen Antikensammlung München. Münih 2014.

Hemberg 1950 B. Hemberg, Die Kabiren. Uppsala 1950.

Herzog 1901 R. Herzog, “Bericht über eine epigraphisch-archäologische Expedition auf der Insel Kos im Sommer 1900”. AA 16 (1901) 131-140.

Higgins – Burn 2001 R. A. Higgins – L. Burn, Catalogue of Greek terracottas in the British Mu-seum. Volume III. Londra 2001.

Higgins 1954 R. Higgins, Catalogue of the Terracottas BMC vol. I. Londra 1954.

Higgins 1967 R. A. Higgins, Greek Terracottas. Londra 1967.

Higgins 1973 R. A. Higgins, “The Terracottas”. Ed. J. N. Coldstream, Knossos. The Sanctuary of Demeter. Londra (1973) 56-92.

Hinz 1998 V. Hinz, Der Kult von Demeter und Kore auf Sizilien und in der Magna Graecia. Wiesbaden 1998.

Işık 1980 F. Işık, Die Koroplastik von Theangela in Karien und ihre Beziehungen zu Ostionien: zwischen 560-270 v. Chr.. Tübingen 1980.

Işık 2000 C. Işık, “Demeter, in Kaunos”. BCH Suppl. 38 (2000) 229-240.

Işık 2001 F. Işık, “Zur Rolle der ionischen Plastik bei der Entstehung der attischen Klassik”. Eds. D. Papenfuss – V. M. Strocka, Gab es das griechische Wunder? Griechenland zwischen dem Ende des 6. und der Mitte des 5. Jahrhunderts v.Chr. Mainz (2001) 147-160.

Işık 2013 F. Işık, “Zur anatolischen Demeter”. Ed. G. Kökdemir, O. Bingöl’e 67. Yaş Armağanı. Ankara (2013) 207-235.

Işın 2007 G. Işın, Patara Terakotaları. İstanbul 2007. Jacopi 1931 G. Jacopi, Esplorazione archeologica di Camiro I. Scavi nelle Necropoli Camiresi 1929-1930. Clara Rhodos 4. Rhodos 1931.

Johannowsky 1987 W. Johannowsky, “Appunti sul Santuario di Demeter e Kore. Studi su Iasos di Caria”. Venticinque anni di scavi della Missione Archeologica Italiana, Bollettino d’Arte, Suppl. BDA 31/32. Roma (1987) 55-58.

Jung 1982 H. Jung, Thronende und sitzende Götter. Bonn 1982.

Karageorghis 1976 V. Karageorghis, Kition. Mycenaean and Phoenician Discoveries in Cyprus. Londra 1976.

Karageorghis 2005 J. Karageorghis, Kypris. The Aphrodite of Cyprus. Nicosia 2005.

Karataş 2015 A. M. S. Karataş, The Sanctuaries of Demeter in Western Asia Minor and on the Islands Off the Coast. Unpublished Doktoral Thesis, University of Bristol. Bristol 2015.

Kerenyi 1998 K. Kerenyi, Dionysos: Urbild des unzerstörbaren Lebens. Stuttgart 1998.

Kilmer 1977 M. F. Kilmer, The Shoulder Bust in Sicily and south and central Italy. A Catalogue and Materials for Dating. Göteborg 1977.

Kleiner 1984 G. Kleiner, Tanagrafiguren. Untersuchungen zur hellenistischen Kunst und Geschichte. Berlin 1984.

Koçak 2013 M. Koçak, Aphrodite am Pfeiler: Studien zu aufgestützten/angelehnten weiblichen Figuren der griechischen Marmorplastik. İstanbul 2013.

Korkut 2005 T. Korkut, “Pisidia’da Chitonik Aphrodite Kültü“. Adalya 8 (2005) 151- 165

Kossatz 1980 A. U. Kossatz, “Milet 1980. Vorbericht über die Arbeiten des Jahres 1980, 2. Grabung westlich des Buleuterion. Ausgewählte Terrakotten aus der Grabung westlich des Buleuterion”. IstMitt 31 (1981) 130-137.

Kraemer 1992 R. S. Kraemer, Her Share of the Blessings women’s religions among pagans, Jews, and Christians in the Greco-Roman world. New York 1992.

Kraus 1960 T. Kraus, Hekate. Heidelberg 1960.

Kron 1992 U. Kron, “Frauenfeste in Demeterheiligtümern: Das Thesmophorion von Bitalemi”. AA (1992) 609-650.

Lagona 1971 S. Lagona, “Forme fittili lentinesi”. Cronache die archaeologia 10 (1971) 75-92.

Larson 2001 J. L. Larson, Greek Nymphs: Myth, Cult, Lore. Oxford 2001.

Lawrence 1925/26 A. W. Lawrence, “A Crowned Head and a Statue of a Child from Mesopotamia”. BSA 27 (1925/26) 113-123.

Lee 2015 M. M. Lee, Body, Dress, and Identitiy in Ancient Greece. Cambridge 2015.

Levi 1967/68 D. Levi, “Gli scavi di Iasos”. ASAtene 45-46 (1967/68) 537-594.

Merker 2000 G. S. Merker, The Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore, Corinth XVIII,4. Terracotta Figurines of the Classical, Hellenistic, and Roman Periods. Princeton 2000.

Merker 2003 G. S. Merker, “Corinthian Terracotta Figurines. The Development of an Industry”. Eds. C. K. Williams – N. Bookidis, Corinth. The Centenary 1896-1996 Corinth 20. Princeton (2003) 233-245.

Metzger 1985 I. R. Metzger, Das Thesmophorion von Eretria. Funde und Befunde eines Heiligtums, Eretria 7. Bern 1985.

Meuli 1946 K. Meuli, “Griechische Opferbräuche”. Ed. O. Gigon, Phyllobolia. Festschrift Peter von der Mühll. Basel (1946) 185-288.

Mitsopoulou 2011 C. Mitsopoulou, “The eleusinian processional cult vessel. Iconographic evidence and interpretation”. Eds. M. Haysom – J. Wallensten, Current approaches to religion in ancient Greece. Symposium 17-19 Nisan 2008. Stockholm (2011) 190-226.

Mollard-Besques 1954 S. Mollard-Besques, Figurines et reliefs en terre-cuite grecs, etrusques et romains I. Paris 1954.

Mollard-Besques 1963 S. Mollard-Besques, Catalogue Raissonne des Figurines et Reliefs en terrecuite Grecs et Romains II. Myrina. Paris 1963.

Muhly 1969 J. D. Muhly, “Homer and the Phoenicians. The Relations between Greece and the Near East in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages”. Berytus 18 (1969) 19-64.

Muller 1996 A. Muller, Thasos, Etudes Thasiennes XVII. Les terres cuites votives du Thesmophorion. De l’atelier au sanctuaire. Atina 1996.

Muss 1994 U. Muss, Die Bauplastik des archaischen Artemision von Ephesos. Sonderschrift des ÖAI 25. Viyana 1994.

Muss 2017 U. Muss, “Rituale im frühen Artemision von Ephesos”. Eds. M. Doyran, B. Özen-Kleine, U. Çörtük – S. Özen, Uluslararası Anadolu’da Demeter ve Diğer Ana Tanrıça Kültleri Sempozyumu, 25-28 Haziran 2014 Kaunos Kazıevi. İzmir (2017) 43-60.

Mylonas 1942 G. Mylonas, The Hymn to Demeter and her Sanctuary at Eleusis. Washington 1942.

Naumann 1983 G. Naumann, Die Ikonographie der Kybele in phrygischen und der griechischen Kunst. Tübingen 1983.

Neumann 1965 G. Neumann, Gesten und Gebärden in der griechischen Kunst. Berlin 1965.

Newton – Pullan 1862 N. C. Newton – R. P. Pullan, A history of discoveries at Halicarnassus, Cnidus and Branchidae II/I. Londra 1862.

Newton 1865 C. T. Newton, Travels and discoveries in the Levant. Londra 1865.

Nielsen 2014 I. Nielsen, Housing the Chosen the architectural context of mystery groups and religious associations in the ancient world. Turnhout 2014.

Nilsson 1906 M. P. Nilsson, Griechische Feste von Religiöser Bedeutung. Leipzig 1906.

Nilsson 1955 M. P. Nilsson, Geschichte der griechischen Religion. Münih 1955.

Nilsson 1956 M. P. Nilsson, Opuscula Selecta 2. Lund 1956.

Özcan 2007 F. Özcan, Die figürlichen Terrakotten von Milet aus klassischer und hellenistischer Zeit. Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Universität Bochum. Bochum 2007.

Özen-Kleine 2017 B. Özen-Kleine, “Weihgaben an Aphrodite”. A. Diler, S. Özen – U. Çörtük et al., 50. Yılında Kaunos. İzmir (2016) 155-170.

Özhanlı – Aktaş 2007 M. Özhanlı – Ş. Aktaş, “Silifke Müzesi’nden Emziren Kadın Figürini”. Eds. C. Işık, Z. Çizmeli-Öğün – B. Varkıvanç, Calbis. Baki Öğün’e Armağan. Ankara (2007) 137-148.

Panvini – Sole 2005 R. Panvini – L. Sole, L’Acropoli di Gela. Stipi, Depositi o Scarichi. Roma 2005.

Parisi 1985 P. C. Parisi, “L’importanza di Hera nelle spedizioni coloniali e nell’insediamento primitivo delle colonie greche alla luce della scoperta di un nuovo santuario periferico di Selinunte”. ArchCl 37 (1985) 44-83.

Parisi 1989 P. C. Parisi, “Indagine sull’iconografia di Hera con ilcuculo. Le divinità e il bestiario nella religione greca”. Memorie 8 (1989) 85-175.

Pottier 1887/88 E. Pottier, La nécropole de Myrina: récherches archéologiques exécutées au nom et aux frais de l'École Française d'Athènes. Paris 1887/88.

Preller 1894 L. Preller, Griechische Mythologie I. Berlin 1894.

Pryce 1931 F. N. Pryce, Catalogue of Sculpture in the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities of the British Museum I/2. Londra 1931.

Robinson 1931 D. M. Robinson, Excavations at Olynthus 4. The terra-cottas of Olynthus found in 1928. Baltimore 1931.

Robinson 1933 D. M. Robinson, Excavations at Olynthus VII. The Terracottas of Olynthus found in 1931. Baltimore 1933.

Rolley 1965 C. Rolley, “Le sanctuaire des dieux patrôoi et le Thesmophorion de Thasos”. BCH 89 (1965) 441-483.

Rumscheid 2003 F. Rumscheid, “Figürliche Votivterrakotten als Ritual-Indikatoren in ostgriechischen Demeter-Heiligtümern? Das Beispiel Priene”. Ed. C. Metzner-Nebelsick, Rituale in der Vorgeschichte, Antike und Gegenwart. Tagung vom 1-2 Şubat 2002 Berlin. Rahden (2003) 149-163.

Rumscheid 2006 F. Rumscheid, Die figürlichen Terrakotten von Priene. Wiesbaden 2006.

Schipporeit 2013 S. T. Schipporeit, Kulte und Heiligtümer der Demeter und Kore in Ionien. İstanbul 2013.

Schipporeit 2014 S. T. Schipporeit, “Griechische Votivterrakotten: Serielle Bilder und Individuelles Anliegen”. Ed. M. Meyer – D. Klimburg-Salter, Visualisierungen von Kult. Viyana (2014) 320-355.

Schipporeit 2017 S. T. Schipporeit, “Bildgehalt und Ritualbezug griechischer Votivterrakotten in kleinasiatischen Heiligtümern der Demeter und der Artemis”. Eds. M. Doyran, B. Özen-Kleine, U. Çörtük – S. Özen, Uluslararası ‘Anadolu’da Demeter ve Diğer Ana Tanrıça Kültleri Sempozyumu 25-28 Haziran 2014 Kaunos Kazıevi. İzmir (2017) 19-36.

Schmaltz 1974 B. Schmaltz, Terrakotten aus dem Kabirenheiligtum bei Theben. Mensc henähnliche Figuren und Gerät. Berlin 1974.

Sfameni-Gasparro 1986 G. Sfameni-Gasparro, Misteri e culti mistici di Demetra. Roma 1986.

Sguaitamatti 1984 M. Sguaitamatti, L’offrante de porcelet dans la coroplathie géléenne. Étude typologique. Mainz 1984.

Simon 1983 E. Simon, Festivals of Attica. Madison 1983.

Simon 1998 E. Simon, Die Götter der Griechen. Münih 1998.

Smith 1949 H. R. W. Smith, “A Goddess from Lebadeia”. Commemorative Studies in Honor of Th. Leslie Shear, Hesperia Suppl. 8. Baltimore (1949) 353-360.

Smith 2013 R. R. Smith, Hellenistik Heykel. İstanbul 2013.

Soykal-Alanyalı 2005 F. Soykal-Alanyalı, “Überlegungen zu dem Kult von Demeter und Kore im sog. Felsspalttempel in Ephesos”. Eds. B. Brandt, V. Gassner – S. Landstätner, Synergia. Festschrift für F. Krinzinger. Viyana (2005) 319- 326.

Steiner 2006 A. Steiner, “Children in Athenian Cult: The Case of Demeter’s Boy". Eds. C. C. Mattusch, A. A. Donohue – A. Brauer, Proceedings of the XVIth International Congress of Classical Archaeology Boston 23-26 Ağustos 2003. Oxford (2006) 610-613.

Strauss 2006 R. Strauss, Reinigungsrituale aus Kizzuwatna: ein Beitrag zur Erforschung hethitische Ritualdtradition und Kulturgeschichte. Berlin 2006.

Stucky 1993 R. A. Stucky, Die Skulpturen aus dem Eschmun-Heiligtum bei Sidon. Griechische, römische, kyprische und phönizische Statuen und reliefs von 6. Jahrhundert vor Chr. bis zum 3. Jahrhundert nach Chr. Basel 1993.

Sutton 2009 R. F. Sutton, “Female Bathers and the Emergence of Female Nude in Greek Art”. Eds. C. Kosso – A. Scott, The Nature and Function of Water, Baths, Bathing and Hygiene from Antiquity through the Renaissance. Leiden (2009) 61-86.

Svoronos 1908 J. N. Svoronos, Das Athener Nationalmuseum I. Atina 1908.

Şahin 2005 M. Şahin, “Terrakotten aus Knidos: Erste Ergebnisse. Die Kulte auf der Rundtempelterrasse”. IstMitt 55 (2005) 65-93.

Şahin 2005/2 M. Şahin, “Kinderstatuetten aus Ton auf der Rundtempelterrassein Knidos”. IstMitt 55 (2005) 95-118.

Thompson 1963 D. B. Thompson, The Terracotta Figurines of the Hellenistic Period, Troy 3. Princeton 1963.

Töpperwein 1971 E. Töpperwein-Hoffmann, “Die Terrakotten von Priene”. IstMitt 21 (1971) 125-160.

Uhlenbrock 1988 J. P. Uhlenbrock, The Terracotta Protomai from Gela. A Discussion of Local Style in archaic Sicily. Roma 1988.

Uhlenbrock 2010 J. P. Uhlenbrock, “Terracotta Types of Enthroned Females from the Extramural Sanctuary of Demeter and Persephone at Cyrene”. Ed. M. Luni, Cirene e la Cirenaica nell’antichita. Roma (2010) 85-100.

Unwin 2017 N. C. Unwin, Caria and Crete in Antiquity. Cambridge 2017.

Varkıvanç 1998 B. Varkıvanç, “Miniaturlampen aus dem Demeterheiligtum in Kaunos”. Adalya 3 (1998) 87-96.

Vermaseren 1977 M. J. Vermaseren, Corpus Cultus Cybelae Attidisque. Leiden 1977.

Vierneisel-Schlörb 1997 B. Vierneisel-Schlörb, Die figürlichen Terrakotten I. Spätmykenisch bis späthellenistisch. Kerameikos XV. Münih 1997

Vorster 1983 C. Vorster, Griechische Kinderstatuen. Köln 1983.

Wächter 1910 Th. Wächter, Reinheitsvorschriften im griechischen Kult. Giessen 1910.

White 1981 D. White, “Cyrene’s Sanctuary of Demeter and Persephone: A Summary of a Decade of Excavation”. AJA 85 (1981) 13-30.

Williams 1969 C. K. Williams II, “Excavations at Corinth, 1968”. Hesperia 38 (1969) 36- 63.

Winter 1903 F. Winter, Die Typen der figürlichen Terrakotten I-III. Berlin 1903.

Zäh 2001 A. Zäh, “Das spätantike und byzantinische Kaunos”. IstMitt 51 (2001) 403-413.

Zäh 2001/2 A. Zäh, “Die Kirchen von Kaunos”. TürkAED 2 (2001) 111-116.

Zanker 1993 P. Zanker, “The Hellenistic Grave Stelai from Smyrna: Identity and Selfimage in the Polis”. Eds. A. Bulloch et al., Images and Ideologies. Selfdefiniton in the Hellenistic World. Conference held at Barkeley 7-9 Nisan 1988. Berkeley (1993) 212-230.

Zervoudaki 1988 E. Zervoudaki, “Vorläufiger Bericht über die Terrakotten aus dem Demeter-Heiligtum der Stadt Rhodos”. Eds. S. Dietz – I. Papachristodoulou, Archaeology in Dodecanese, Symposion Kopenhag 1986. Kopenhag (1988) 129-137.

Zuntz 1971 G. Zuntz, Persephone. Three Essays on Religion and Thought in Magna Graecia. Oxford 1971.

Kaynak Göster