Hollanda’da kadınların kısmi süreli istihdamı ve etkileri

Hollanda’da kısmi süreli istihdam geçen 30 yıl içinde önemli derecede artmış ve en yaygın çalışma biçimlerinden biri haline gelmiştir. Hollanda’da kısmi süreli kadın istihdam oranı diğer OECD ülkelerindekinden yüksektir. Bu ülkede çalışan dört kadından üçü kısmi süreli çalışmaktadır. 2009 yılında kadınların kısmi süreli çalışma oranı (yüzde 75,8) erkeklerinkinden (yüzde 24,9) üç kat daha fazladır. Hollanda’da kadınların kısmi süreli istihdam oranı artarken, hane yapısı tek gelir getiren erkek modelinden erkeğin tam zamanlı kadının ise kısmi süreli çalıştığı modele doğru değişmektedir. Sınırlı ücret artışları ve iş paylaşımı 1980’li yıllardan bu yana Hollanda modelinin merkezinde yer almaktadır. Hollanda’da kısmi süreli çalışma tam süreli çalışma gibi güvenceli ve devamlı olduğu için çoğu zaman eğreti çalışma olarak kabul edilmez. Fakat çoğunlukla kadınların çalıştığı aşırı a-tipik ve aşırı kısmi süreli işler güvencesiz, düşük ücretli, gelip geçici ve eğretidir. Gönülsüz kısmi süreli istihdam oranı düşük olmakla birlikte, kısmi süreli istihdamın uzun dönemli olumsuz etkilerinin üstesinden bütünüyle gelinememiştir. Aynı zamanda, istihdam geçişkenliklerinde cinsiyete dayalı eşitsizlik varlığını sürdürmekte ve kadınlar erkeklerden dikkate değer biçimde daha az gelir elde etmektedir. Emeklilik geliri, kariyer gelişimi, yoksulluk riski ve kadının ekonomik bağımsızlılığı üzerinde kısmi süreli çalışmanın olumsuz etkileri vardır.

Part-time employment has been significantly increasing in the Netherlands for the past three decades and become one of the most extended patterns of work. Female part-time employment rate in the Netherlands is higher than in other OECD countries. In this country, three in four working women work part-time. The part-time employment rate for women (75,8%) is three times higher the part- time employment rate for men (24,9%) in 2009. In the Netherlands, while women's part-time employment rate has continued to rise, the structure of the households is changing from a single earner couples to one-and-a-half earner couples. Wage moderation and job sharing have been at the heart of the Netherlands’ model since the 1980s. Part-time work is usually not regarded as precarious work, since part-time work is as permanent and secure as full-time work in the Netherlands. But very atypical and very short part-time jobs that women mostly work are insecure, low paid, casual and precarious. While the rate of involuntary part-time employment is low, not all longer-term adverse impacts have been overcome. Also gender inequality in employment transitions is evident and women earn considerably less than men. There are negative impacts of part-time work on economic independence of women, poverty risk, career progression and retirement income.

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